Egypt

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Question Value
1. Is there a ban on donations from foreign interests to political parties?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source

    Political Parties Organization Law No. 40 for the year 1977 as Amended by Law No. 12 for the year 2011,  Article 11:
    "...The party may not accept any donation, advantage or benefit from a foreigner, from a foreign or international party, or from a legal person, even if they have Egyptian nationality..."

2. Is there a ban on donations from foreign interests to candidates?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source

     

    Decree-Law No. 45/2014 Promulgating the Law on the Regulation of the Exercise of Political Rights

     

    Article (35)

    Bearing in mind the provisions of Article (26) of this Law, it is prohibited to receive any

    contributions or support in cash or in kind for the purpose of financing electoral campaigning for

    a candidate, or influencing public opinion towards a certain opinion in a subject put to

    referendum, from any of the following:

    1- An Egyptian or foreign legal person.

    2- A foreign state or body or an international organization.

    3- An entity whose capital is participated in by a natural or legal person who is Egyptian or

    foreign, or any foreign body regardless of its legal form.

    4- A foreign natural person.

3. Is there a ban on corporate donations to political parties?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source

     

    Decree-Law No. 45/2014 Promulgating the Law on the Regulation of the Exercise of Political Rights

     

    Article (35)

    Bearing in mind the provisions of Article (26) of this Law, it is prohibited to receive any

    contributions or support in cash or in kind for the purpose of financing electoral campaigning for

    a candidate, or influencing public opinion towards a certain opinion in a subject put to

    referendum, from any of the following:

    1- An Egyptian or foreign legal person.

    2- A foreign state or body or an international organization.

    3- An entity whose capital is participated in by a natural or legal person who is Egyptian or

    foreign, or any foreign body regardless of its legal form.

    4- A foreign natural person.

4. Is there a ban on corporate donations to candidates?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source

    Decree-Law No. 45/2014 Promulgating the Law on the Regulation of the Exercise of Political Rights

     

    Article (35)

    Bearing in mind the provisions of Article (26) of this Law, it is prohibited to receive any

    contributions or support in cash or in kind for the purpose of financing electoral campaigning for

    a candidate, or influencing public opinion towards a certain opinion in a subject put to

    referendum, from any of the following:

    1- An Egyptian or foreign legal person.

    2- A foreign state or body or an international organization.

    3- An entity whose capital is participated in by a natural or legal person who is Egyptian or

    foreign, or any foreign body regardless of its legal form.

    4- A foreign natural person.

5. Is there a ban on donations from Trade Unions to political parties?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source

    Political Parties Organization Law No. 40 for the year 1977 as Amended by Law No. 12 for the year 2011,  Article 11:
    "...The party may not accept any donation, advantage or benefit from a foreigner, from a foreign or international party, or from a legal person, even if they have Egyptian nationality..."

6. Is there a ban on donations from Trade Unions to candidates?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source

    Decree-Law No. 45/2014 Promulgating the Law on the Regulation of the Exercise of Political Rights

     

    Article (35)

    Bearing in mind the provisions of Article (26) of this Law, it is prohibited to receive any

    contributions or support in cash or in kind for the purpose of financing electoral campaigning for

    a candidate, or influencing public opinion towards a certain opinion in a subject put to

    referendum, from any of the following:

    1- An Egyptian or foreign legal person.

    2- A foreign state or body or an international organization.

    3- An entity whose capital is participated in by a natural or legal person who is Egyptian or

    foreign, or any foreign body regardless of its legal form.

    4- A foreign natural person.

7. Is there a ban on anonymous donations to political parties?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    Political Parties Organization Law No. 40 for the year 1977 as Amended by Law No. 12 for the year 2011,  Article 11:
    "The party's resources consist of the contributions of its members, the donations of Egyptian natural persons, and also the proceeds of investing its money in the non-commercial aspects determined by its internal system...."

  • Source
8. Is there a ban on anonymous donations to candidates?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    But: Art 26 ' The candidate shall keep the PEC posted on all amounts deposited in his account as well as sources and aspects of expenditures, on such dates and through such procedures as are set by the PEC. No expenditures on the election campaign shall be made beyond this account. The PEC shall allocate the remaining balance on that account to contributions on a pro-rate basis, in accordance with such procedures as may be specified by the PEC.'

    Source Law No. 174 for the year 2005

  • Source
9. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with government contracts to political parties?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source

    Political Parties Organization Law No. 40 for the year 1977 as Amended by Law No. 12 for the year 2011,  Article 11:

    "...The party may not accept any donation, advantage or benefit from a foreigner, from a foreign or international party, or from a legal person, even if they have Egyptian nationality..."

10. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with government contracts to candidates?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    Decree-Law No. 45/2014 Promulgating the Law on the Regulation of the Exercise of Political Rights

    Article (35) Bearing in mind the provisions of Article (26) of this Law, it is prohibited to receive any

    contributions or support in cash or in kind for the purpose of financing electoral campaigning for

    a candidate, or influencing public opinion towards a certain opinion in a subject put to

    referendum, from any of the following:

    1- An Egyptian or foreign legal person.

    2- A foreign state or body or an international organization.

    3- An entity whose capital is participated in by a natural or legal person who is Egyptian or

    foreign, or any foreign body regardless of its legal form.

    4- A foreign natural person.

  • Source
11. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with partial government ownership to political parties?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source

    Political Parties Organization Law No. 40 for the year 1977 as Amended by Law No. 12 for the year 2011,  Article 11:

    "...The party may not accept any donation, advantage or benefit from a foreigner, from a foreign or international party, or from a legal person, even if they have Egyptian nationality..."

12. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with partial government ownership to candidates?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source

    Decree-Law No. 45/2014 Promulgating the Law on the Regulation of the Exercise of Political Rights

     

    Article (35)

    Bearing in mind the provisions of Article (26) of this Law, it is prohibited to receive any

    contributions or support in cash or in kind for the purpose of financing electoral campaigning for

    a candidate, or influencing public opinion towards a certain opinion in a subject put to

    referendum, from any of the following:

    1- An Egyptian or foreign legal person.

    2- A foreign state or body or an international organization.

    3- An entity whose capital is participated in by a natural or legal person who is Egyptian or

    foreign, or any foreign body regardless of its legal form.

    4- A foreign natural person.

13. Is there a ban on the use of state resources in favour or against a political party or candidate?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source

    Presidential Decision No. 22/2014, Article 19

14. Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party during a non-election specific period?
  • CodeYes, for natural persons
  • Comment

    5% of the total expenditure ceiling (General Elections)

    2% of the total expenditure ceiling  (Presidential Elections)

  • Source

    Decree-Law No. 45/2014 Promulgating the Law on the Regulation of the Exercise of Political Rights, Article 26

    Presidential Decree No. 22/2014 Art 23

15. If there is a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party during a non-election specific period, what is the limit?
  • Code 5% or 2% of the total expenditure ceiling
  • Comment
  • Source
    • 5% of the total expenditure ceiling (General Elections)

      2% of the total expenditure ceiling  (Presidential Elections)

     

    • Decree-Law No. 45/2014 Promulgating the Law on the Regulation of the Exercise of Political Rights, Article 26

    • Presidential Decree No. 22/2014 Art 23

16. Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party during an election?
  • CodeYes, for natural persons
  • Comment
    • 5% of the total expenditure ceiling (General Elections)

      2% of the total expenditure ceiling  (Presidential Elections)

     

    • Decree-Law No. 45/2014 Promulgating the Law on the Regulation of the Exercise of Political Rights, Article 26

    • Presidential Decree No. 22/2014 Art 23

  • Source
17. If there is a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party during an election, what is the limit?
  • Code 5% or 2% of the total expenditure ceiling
  • Comment
    • 5% of the total expenditure ceiling (General Elections)

      2% of the total expenditure ceiling  (Presidential Elections)

     

    • Decree-Law No. 45/2014 Promulgating the Law on the Regulation of the Exercise of Political Rights, Article 26

    • Presidential Decree No. 22/2014 Art 23

  • Source
18. Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a candidate?
  • CodeYes, for natural persons
  • Comment

    5% of the total expenditure ceiling (General Elections)

    2% of the total expenditure ceiling  (Presidential Elections)

  • Source

    Decree-Law No. 45/2014 Promulgating the Law on the Regulation of the Exercise of Political Rights, Article 26

    Presidential Decree No. 22/2014 Art 23

19. If there is a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a candidate, what is the limit?
  • Code 5% of the expenditure ceiling per donor.
  • Comment

    5% of the total expenditure ceiling (General Elections)

    2% of the total expenditure ceiling  (Presidential Elections)

  • Source

    Decree-Law No. 45/2014 Promulgating the Law on the Regulation of the Exercise of Political Rights, Article 26
    Presidential Decree No. 22/2014 Art 23

20. Is there a limit on the amount a candidate can contribute to their own election campaign?
  • CodeSpecific limit for candidates
  • Comment
  • Source

    Decree-Law No. 45/2014 Promulgating the Law on the Regulation of the Exercise of Political Rights, Article (25)

    The maximum amount to be spent by each candidate in electoral campaigning under the

    individual-seat system is 500,000 pounds, and 200,000 pounds in the run-off stage.

    The limits established above shall be doubled for each 15 candidates in the same list.

21. Is there a limit on in-kind donations to political parties?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source

    Presidential Decision No. 22/2014, Article 19

22. Is there a limit on in-kind donations to candidates?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source

    Presidential Decision No. 22/2014, Article 19

23. Is there a ban on political parties engaging in commercial activities?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source

    Political Parties Organization Law No. 40 for the year 1977 as Amended by Law No. 12 for the year 2011,  Article 11

24. Is there a ban on political parties taking loans in relation to election campaigns?
  • CodeNo data
  • Comment
  • Source
25. Is there a ban on candidates taking loans in relation to election campaigns?
  • CodeNo data
  • Comment
  • Source
26. Is there a ban on donors to political parties/candidates participating in public tender/procurement processes?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
27. Are there provisions requiring donations to go through the banking system?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source

    Political Parties Organization Law No. 40 for the year 1977 as Amended by Law No. 12 for the year 2011,  Article 12

Question Value
28. Are there provisions for direct public funding to political parties?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
29. What are the eligibility criteria for political parties to receive public funding?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
  • Source
30. What is the allocation calculation for political parties to receive public funding?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
  • Source
31. What are the provisions on 'ear marking' direct public funding to political parties (how it should be used)?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
  • Source
32. Are there provisions for free or subsidized access to media for political parties?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source

    Decree-Law No. 45/2014 Promulgating the Law on the Regulation of the Exercise of Political Rights, Article 29

33. What criteria determine allocation for free or subsidized access to media for political parties?
  • CodeEqual
  • Comment
  • Source

    Decree-Law No. 45/2014 Promulgating the Law on the Regulation of the Exercise of Political Rights, Article 29

34. Are there provisions for free or subsidized access to media for candidates?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source

    Decree-Law No. 45/2014 Promulgating the Law on the Regulation of the Exercise of Political Rights, Article 29

35. Are there provisions for any other form of indirect public funding?
  • CodeTax relief
  • Comment
  • Source

    Political Parties Organization Law No. 40 for the year 1977 as Amended by Law No. 12 for the year 2011, Article 13,
    The party's premises and facilities and its funds shall be exempt from all general and local taxes and fees

36. Is the provision of direct public funding to political parties tied to gender equality among candidates?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
  • Source
37. Are there provisions for other financial advantages to encourage gender equality in political parties?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source

Question Value
38. Is there a ban on vote buying?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source

    Decree-Law No. 45/2014 Promulgating the Law on the Regulation of the Exercise of Political Rights, Article 65 (1), II.

39. Are there limits on the amount a political party can spend?
  • CodeNo data
  • Comment
  • Source
40. If there are limits on the amount a political party can spend, what is the limit?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
  • Source
41. Are there limits on the amount a candidate can spend?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    Article 1: "The maximum limit of expenditures by each candidate for campaigning shall be EGP 20 million, and in case of run offs, the maximum limit of expenditure shall be EGP 5 million."

  • Source

    Official Gazette – Issue No. 2 bis January 16, 2018

42. If there are limits on the amount a candidate can spend, what is the limit?
  • Code EGP 20 million
  • Comment

    Article 1: "The maximum limit of expenditures by each candidate for campaigning shall be EGP 20 million, and in case of run offs, the maximum limit of expenditure shall be EGP 5 million."

  • Source

    Official Gazette – Issue No. 2 bis January 16, 2018

43. Are there limits on the amount that third parties can spend on election campaign activities?
  • CodeNo data
  • Comment
  • Source
44. Are there limits on traditional media advertising spending in relation to election campaigns?
  • CodeNo data
  • Comment
  • Source
45. Are there limits on online media advertising spending in relation to election campaigns?
  • CodeNo data
  • Comment
  • Source
46. Do any other restrictions on online media advertisement (beyond limits) exist?
  • CodeNo data
  • Comment
  • Source

Question Value
47. Do political parties have to report regularly on their finances?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    The report shall be sent to the Accountability State Authority by the end of each year

  • Source

    Political Parties Organization Law No. 40 for the year 1977 as Amended by Law No. 12 for the year 2011, Article 11

48. Do political parties have to report on their election campaign finances?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    On some finances:

    Art 26 ‘(…)Parties shall be under obligation to notify the Political Parties Affairs Committee of the contributions exceeding LE 1,000 each received thereby within the three months prior to the date set for balloting, which notice shall be given within the five days following receipt of the contribution’

    Law No. 174 for the year 2005

  • Source
49. Do candidates have to report on their election campaign finances?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source

    Decree-Law No. 45/2014 Promulgating the Law on the Regulation of the Exercise of Political Rights, Article 28

50. Do third parties have to report on election campaign finances?
  • CodeNo data
  • Comment
  • Source
51. Is information in reports from political parties and/or candidates to be made public?
  • CodeNo data
  • Comment
  • Source
52. Must reports from political parties and/or candidates reveal the identity of donors?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source

    Political Parties Organization Law No. 40 for the year 1977 as Amended by Law No. 12 for the year 2011, Article 11

53. Must reports from political parties and/or candidates include information on itemized income?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source

    Political Parties Organization Law No. 40 for the year 1977 as Amended by Law No. 12 for the year 2011,Article 11

54. Must reports from political parties and/or candidates include information on itemized spending?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source

    Political Parties Organization Law No. 40 for the year 1977 as Amended by Law No. 12 for the year 2011, Article 12

55. Which institution(s) receives financial reports from political parties and/or candidates?
  • CodeEMB | Auditing agency
  • Comment

    Article 4: "A candidate shall abide by opening an account in the local currency at either the National Bank of Egypt or Banque Misr to deposit all the funds allocated for the electoral campaign therein, and shall notify the NEA of the name of the bank and the account number. Both the selected bank and the candidate shall notify the NEA once a deposit is made in such account and the source thereof. A candidate shall notify the NEA of the expenditures incurred from the bank account at once. Spending on the electoral campaign from any other source shall be banned."

  • Source

    Presidential Elections Law No 22. for the year 2014, Article 26

     

    Official Gazette – Issue No. 2 bis January 16, 2018

56. Which institution(s) is responsible for examining financial reports and/or investigating violations?
  • CodeYes, EMB | Yes, ministry | Yes, auditing agency | Yes, other
  • Comment

    Art. 5. "A committee headed by the judge, who is the head of the electoral follow-up committee, shall be established in each governorate with the membership of at least a counselor from the Administrative Prosecution Authority in the governorate, a representative of the Central Audit Agency, and two experts from the Expert Authority of the Ministry of Justice. Such committees shall be responsible for monitoring the incidents taking place in governorates in violation of the regulations provided by the constitution, the law, or the NEA decrees on funding and spending in the electoral campaigns taking place within each governorate. Such committees shall draft reports that include the observation of violations revealed and such reports shall be presented to the Executive Body of the NEA enlisting the incidents and indicators of violation and determining the identity of the perpetrators whenever possible. The mentioned Executive Body shall draft a report on such violations to be presented to the Board of Directors of the NEA to undertake the necessary actions towards such violations and the perpetrators thereof."

  • Source

    Official Gazette – Issue No. 2 bis January 16, 2018

57. What power is granted to the institution(s) responsible for examining reports and/or investigating violations?
  • CodeCarry out investigation | Impose sanctions
  • Comment

    Art 12 'The Central Audit Agency shall periodically audit the books and documents of the party’s revenues an expenditures account and its other financial affairs, to ascertain the soundness of the party’s resources and legitimacy of its funds expenditure aspects. They party shall enable the Agency to carry out the forgoing. The said Agency shall draw up an annual report on the financial standing and affairs of the party and notify the head of the Political Parties Affairs Committee of such a report.'

    Law No. 174 for the year 2005

  • Source

    Presidential Elections Law No 22. for the year 2014, Article 49

58. What sanctions are provided for political finance infractions?
  • CodeFines | Prison | Forfeiture | Loss of elected office
  • Comment

    Art. 49 A’ fine of not less than ten thousand pounds and not more than five hundred thousand pounds shall be imposed in the following cases:1. Whoever spends on the electoral campaign any amounts others than those deposited in the bank account referred to in Article (23) of this Law, or spends the deposited amounts in the said bank account for non-electoral campaign purposes.2. Whoever exceeds the prescribed ceiling amount for expenditure in the electoral campaign’

    'Art. 56 'A fine of not less than ten thousand pounds and not exceeding two hundred thousands pounds, or either penalty shall be imposed on whoever violates the provisions of Article 24 of this law, together with the confiscation of the received donations.'

    Article 68 'Whoever commits any of the following acts shall be punishable by a fine of no less than ten thousand pounds and no more than one hundred thousand pounds:I- Violation of the periods established under Articles (24) and (30) or under the third clause of the fifth paragraph of Article (37) of this Law.II- Spending funds in electoral campaigning which are not recorded in the bank account determined by HEC.III- Electoral campaigning in violation of the regulations contained in Article (31) of this law.IV- Violation of the prohibition prescribed in Article (34) of this Law. The Court may rule  in addition to the fine to remove the offender from his/her position for a period of five years, if his/her act influenced the result of the elections. V- Accepting a donation higher than the amount prescribed in Article (26) of this Law. The court shall rule that the funds in excess of that amount be confiscated.

    Article 69 ‘Whoever commits an act violating the provisions of Article (35) of this Law shall be punishable by imprisonment and a fine of no less than one hundred thousand pounds and no more than one million pounds. The court shall rule that the funds involved in the crime be confiscated.'

    Source:  Presidential Decision No. 22/2014

    Art. 25. 'If any officials in political parties, any of the party members or staff accept or directly receive money or advantages without any legal right from Egyptians to implement or practice any activity related to the party, the punishment is imprisonment. Imprisonment also takes place if money or benefits are from foreigners or any foreign bodies. In any cases the court requests to confiscate property derived from crime.'

    Source Law No. 40 of the year 1977

  • Source

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