Is e-voting currently used in any elections with EMB participation?



  • Yes, in politically-binding national elections (elections for public office or direct democracy initiatives)
  • Yes, in politically-binding sub-national elections (e.g. elections for regional legislature or executive office etc.)

Bhutan, Election Act 2008 [official English translation], accessed 29 October 2018

1. This Act shall: (b) Extend to the whole of Bhutan, and apply to elections to Parliament and Local Governments in all electoral constituencies and to National Referendums;

330. A voter shall cast his/her vote in person at the polling station through a secret ballot. Provided that the Election Commission may, with regard to the circumstances of each case, direct that the votes at any election in a constituency be cast and recorded by electronic voting machine (EVM).

Election Commission of Bhutan: Electronic Voting Machine (EVM) Rules and Regulations of the Kingdom of Bhutan (2018), accessed 29 October 2018

3. Purpose

3.1 The EVM:

3.1.1 Ensures total secrecy of voting data;

3.1.2 Safeguards the purity of the ballot;

3.1.3 Ensures efficiency in the recording of votes;

3.1.4 Is portable, tamper-proof and error-free;

3.1.5 Counts votes accurately and also ensures quick declaration of results;

3.1.6 Permits each voter, by pressing button to cast his/her vote for any candidate or party or for any special measure for whom or on which such voter is lawfully entitled to vote;

3.1.7 Reduces the use of paper, saves time, money and manpower for printing, checking and counting of ballot papers; and

3.1.8 Eliminates all chances of invalid votes.


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