Is e-voting currently used in any elections with EMB participation?



No, e-voting is not used currently

Federal Republic of Nigeria, Official Gazette, Electoral Act 2022, accessed 16 February 2023

41.— (1) The Commission shall provide suitable boxes, electronic voting machine or any other voting device for the conduct of elections.

(2) The forms to be used for the conduct of elections to the offices mentioned in this Act shall be determined by the Commission.

(3) The Polling agents shall be entitled to be present at the distribution of the election materials, electronic voting machine and voting devices from the office to the polling booth. […]

Library of Congress, Nigeria: President Vetoes Electoral Act (Amendment) Bill, accessed 7 February 2019


The 2015 amendment to the Electoral Act amended the Clause 52(2) prohibiting the use of e-voting and gave the power for INEC to determine the procedure of voting. Then, with the further amendment proposal (Electoral Act (Amendment) Bill 2018), INEC sought to further amend the provision to implement electronic voting. However, on March 13, 2018, Nigerian President Muhammadu Buhari, citing a number of concerns, vetoed  the Electoral Act (Amendment) Bill 2018. Article 41 of the Electoral Act 2022 still provides for the possibility of electronic voting. However, during 2023 General Elections, e-voting has not been used. 

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