Electoral system for national legislature - Iraq

Country: 
Iraq
Question: 
Electoral system for national legislature
Answer: 
List PR
Comments: 

List PR using open lists and based on modified Sainte-Laguë Method. See full details in the source section. 

Source: 

THE SYSTEM OF DISTRIBUTION THE SEATS OF THE COUNCIL OF REPRESENTATIVE NO. (12) FOR THE YEAR 2018

Section III. Distribution of general seats

The distribution of general seats according to the modified Santlego (meaning “Sainte-Laguë Method”) system is as follows:

First Step (Distribution the Seats on Lists)

a) The number of valid votes cast for each participating list shall be calculated in the competition for the seats of the electoral district.

b) Competing lists shall be arranged in the constituency according to the number of valid votes obtained from top to bottom.

c) The correct votes obtained by the lists are divided by (1.7) and then divided into individual numbers (3,5,7,9,11, .... etc), so that we get the results of the division is equivalent to the number of seats allocated to the electoral district after the order of these results from top to bottom.

d) A seat is allocated to the list that obtained the highest dividing output and the second seat is allocated to the list that obtained the second highest output and so forth until all the seats assigned to the electoral district are fulfilled.

e) If two or more lists have obtained equal votes and qualified for a seat and their final ranking within the constituency, the IHEC shall draw the lots between them in the presence of its authorized representatives and shall be the winner of the list determined by the lot.

Second step (Distribution the seats on Candidates)

1. Candidates are rearranged within the open list based on the number of votes obtained by each candidate from top to bottom.

2. The seats obtained by the list shall be allocated to the candidates in accordance with paragraph (1) above.

3. If two or more candidates in the same list are equal to the number of votes, the seats shall be allocated by lot in the presence of the authorized representative of the party or the authorized representatives of the allied political parties.

Third Step (calculate the Quota of women)

1. All seats are distributed to the winners regardless of the gender of the candidate.

2. This system ensures achieving the percentage of seats for women is not less than 25% (83) women. In case of failure to achieve the percentage mentioned, as stated in the table in the second section of this regulation for each province, the following is followed:

a) A seat shall be allocated from the seats obtained by the list for a woman after each three winners, regardless of the winners of the men.

b) In case the percentage of women in the list is not achieved according to paragraph (1) above, the following is followed to complete the percentage:

1. The share of each list of women is determined by dividing the number of seats allocated to the list by three, eliminating the decimals fractions.

2. The remaining number of women seats in each winning list shall be calculated by subtracting the number of seats of winner women according to paragraph (a) above of the share existing of women seats.

3. A seat is allocated for women after each two male winner, regardless of the number of votes obtained by men.

4. If the seats required for women are not completed according to the above, a seat for women shall be allocated from the seats of the lists that obtained two seats and from the lowest to the highest. The male winner of the second seat shall be replaced by the female candidate with the highest votes within the same list.

5. If all the steps in this system do not achieve the required number of women seats, it will be allocated the seats of lists that have obtained just one seat to women and from the lowest to the highest, until the required number is achieved according to the mechanism specified in this system.

6. The candidate who obtained the highest number of votes in the list of one seat in the same electoral district shall be replaced by a female candidate from the same list who obtained the highest votes of women in the same list.

The distribution of seats on candidates of the Christian component

1. All candidates of competing lists are arranged on the seats of the Christian component according to the number of votes obtained by each candidate from the top to the lowest according to the constituencies to which they belong (Baghdad, Nineveh, Kirkuk, Dohuk, Irbil) regardless of the lists, then the seat of the constituency shall be given to the candidate who receives the highest votes of the competing candidates within this constituency. The other seat shall be given to the candidate who obtains the highest votes of the competing candidates in another constituency and so on until all the seats of the Christian component are distributed to the candidates and their lists.

2. If a single list wins a seat, the candidate of this list will have priority in obtaining the seat of the constituency.

3. If two or more lists are obtained a seat and their candidates are from the same governorate, the seat shall be allocated to the list that obtained the highest output of the division, and when the results of the division are equal, the draw shall be taken in the presence of the candidates of the individual lists or their authorized representatives.