Protecting Electoral Integrity: The Case of South Africa

This case study highlights how the Electoral Commission of South Africa (IEC) has developed strategies to identify and manage risks; adapt and respond to changing circumstances; and prepare for possible crises. 

Through formal risk and crisis management processes, scenario-based planning and well-established governance structures, the IEC has managed to maintain the integrity of electoral processes in South Africa despite several challenges, such as the Covid-19 pandemic. 

Managing Elections during Floods: The Case of Victoria, Australia

Victoria held state elections on Saturday 26 November 2022. Six weeks previously, the state had suffered serious floods. 

The aims of this case study are, to give an overview of how the floods and related events unfolded in Victoria, and to explain the legal and institutional background of the Victoria Elections Commission, the electoral system and modes of voting, and how these were affected by the floods, likewise turnout and campaigning, and finally, to describe which risk management (and resilience-building) tools were used to address the challenges.

Taming the Twin Hazards: Indonesia’s 2020 Direct Local Election

The year 2020 was very challenging for electoral stakeholders and administrators Indonesia; direct local elections were held simultaneously in all regions of the country amid the Covid-19 pandemic. Compounding this challenge, the 2020 direct local elections were held on 9 December, which coincides with the peak period of the rainy season in Indonesia.

Wildfire and Elections in California

Like other natural disasters, wildfires can have sudden calamitous impacts on communities, destroying buildings, damaging infrastructure and displacing populations. In this chapter we examine the Californian wildfires occurring from September 2015 to November 2018 to assess their effect on two electoral cycles in the state (2016 and 2018), and to study how electoral practitioners cope with these challenges in a developed democratic setting.

Cyclones and their Effects on the 2019 Elections in Mozambique

The 2019 elections in Mozambique were preceded by two cyclones that directly and significantly affected the electoral process in the central and northern regions. In addition to the cyclones, terrorist attacks which began in 2017 had a negative impact on voter registration and voting processes.

This case study provides several findings and lessons learned.

The Impact of Natural Hazards on Haiti's 2010 Presidential and Legislative Elections

The challenges faced by electoral administrators in holding Haiti’s 2010 elections were extreme. Even before the country was confronted with the effects of the compound disasters addressed in this case study, it was dealing
with long-term societal and institutional problems that severely impeded electoral administration.

Varieties of Electoral Integrity Risk: Protecting Elections in Brazil. Case study, September 2023

This case study examines several kinds of risks to electoral integrity present in Brazil and the role that the Electoral Justice plays in preventing and combating them. It addresses the risks, describing in each case the preventive policies as well as occasions on which some risks have materialized as threats. The paper also highlights some crisis management procedures in particular timely communication and proactive tools. Finally, the study concludes with some lessons learned and challenges to be faced.


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