This paper discusses the origins and development of the European Citizens Initiative (ECI), which fully entered into force on 1 June 2012.
The paper analyses the significance of the ECI as an example of a transnational participatory democracy mechanism and tries to understand whether the ECI is effectively causing the increased inclusiveness and outreach to citizens that have been anticipated.
Introduction and background
The origins of the ECI and its Regulation
The ECI and the European Convention
The ECI and diversity
Conclusion and recommendations
Acronyms and abbreviations
Appendix: List of the policy areas and Treaty articles on which ECIs can be based