Questionnaire

Democratic accountability in service delivery
Questionaire

The questionnaire is a guide to drive, focus and target the collection of structured information for analysis.

Each of the nine guiding questions results from the intersection between a democratic principle and a stage of the policy process.

How [principle] is the [duty bearer] to the [claim holder/s] for the [duty at policy stage]?

Each guiding question is then broken down into four issues. The issues to look for section provides further guidance on the specific aspects an assessor needs to investigate.

Assessors should tailor their questionnaire to the specific problems and accountability relationships they are assessing. Only on the basis of a tailored questionnaire can the assessment team assess the full extent of accountability problems and devise specific recommendations for action aimed at improving these relationships. Everything from language to actors, concepts and so on must be context-sensitive.

Principle Agenda Setting Policymaking Implementation

Answerability

The extent to which a government carries out its duty to explain and justify its decisions to the public.
How answerable is duty bearer to claim holder for agenda setting duty? How answerable is duty bearer to claim holder for policymaking duty? How answerable is duty bearer to claim holder for implementation duty?
ISSUES TO LOOK FOR
  • The duty bearer’s will, capacity and space to explain and be transparent about choices and decisions.
  • The claim holders’ will, capacity and space to ask questions/demand actions from the duty bearer; and claim holders’ collaboration with each other in doing so (paying special attention to the preferences of those marginalized from the service due, for instance, to discrimination on the basis of gender, age, social status, faith, disabilities, gender identity, sexual orientation, etc.).
  • How available, adequate, inclusive and effective the answerability mechanisms are, including the extent to which reviews and audits by oversight institutions have any influence.
  • How the context influences the diverse answerability mechanisms, keeping in mind the power dynamics, political incentives, structural conditions and historical legacies.

Responsiveness

Whether public officials take opportunities to consult citizens or their representatives before a policy or law is approved, so that the content of such decisions reflects their views, their demands or human rights principles.
How responsive is duty bearer to claim holder for agenda setting duty? How responsive is duty bearer to claim holder for policymaking duty? How responsive is duty bearer to claim holder for implementation duty?
ISSUES TO LOOK FOR
  • How effective is the duty bearer at addressing claims from diverse claim holders (including from those marginalized from the service due, for instance, to discrimination on the basis of gender, age, social status, faith, disability, gender identity sexual orientation, etc.).
  • The claim holders’ ability to effectively voice the preferences of service users and to influence the duty bearer, and claim holders’ collaboration with each other in doing so
  • How available, adequate, inclusive and effective the mechanisms for responsiveness are.
  • How the context influences the diverse responsiveness mechanisms, keeping in mind the power dynamics, political incentives, structural conditions and historical legacies.

Enforceability

Concerns the formal or informal consequences that duty bearers may face and that they should respond to. Such consequences may be formally laid down in rules or informally accepted in practice.
To what degree the claim holder can impose and enforce consequences on duty bearer for agenda setting duty? To what degree the claim holder can impose and enforce consequences on duty bearer for policymaking duty? To what degree the claim holder can impose and enforce consequences on duty bearer for implementation duty?
ISSUES TO LOOK FOR
  • Duty bearers face credible consequences (sanctions or rewards) from claim holders irrespective of their gender, age, social status, and so on.
  • The will, capacity and space of claim holders to effectively impose consequences (feedback, sanctions, praise, etc.) on duty bearers, including claim holders’ collaboration with each other in so doing.
  • How available, adequate, predictable and effective the consequences are, including the capacity of oversight and enforcement agencies to enforce them.
  • How the context influences the diverse enforcement mechanisms, keeping in mind the power dynamics, political incentives, structural conditions and historical legacies.

Disclaimer: Maps presented do not imply on the part of the Institute any judgement on the legal status of any territory or the endorsement of such boundaries, nor does the placement or size of any country or territory reflect the political view of International IDEA. Maps are used in order to add visual clarity to data.