World

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Country Year Election type Voting method First year Comments
Afghanistan 2014 No external voting No external voting 2004 For Presidential elections of 2014: although the election law theoretically permits external voting (Article 5), the website of the election commission does not provide any information about the possibility of voting from abroad.
Albania 2017 No external voting No external voting Not applicable Electoral Code of Albania (approved by Law no. 10 019, dated 29 December 2008, amended by Law no. 74/2012, dated 19 July 2012 and Law no. 31/2015, dated 2 April 2015) does not contain any provisions for external voting. (Data was updated in July 2017)
Algeria 2012 Presidential
Legislative
Referendums
Personal
Proxy
1976 Data was the same in International IDEA's Voting from Abroad: The International IDEA Handbook (2007). The Electoral Law of 2016 does not introduce any changes to the Articles 9 and 53 providing for external voting. See "Loi organique n° 16-10 du 22 Dhou El Ka‚da 1437 correspondant au 25 août 2016 relative au régime electoral" in the Source. (Data has been updated in April 2018)
Andorra 2014 Legislative Postal 2015 The 2014 amendments to the Electoral Law provided for the first time the possibility of postal voting for non-resident citizens staying abroad. Data has been updated in March 2018.
Angola 2017 Legislative Not yet decided Not conducted yet External voting has still not been implemented. Angolan citizens could not cast their votes from abroad in the most recent elections in 2017.
Anguilla 2017 No external voting No external voting Not applicable Data was updated in 2017, based on the elections held in 2015. 
Antigua and Barbuda 2018 No external voting No external voting Not applicable Data has been updated in April 2018.
Argentina 1991 Presidential
Legislative
Personal 1991 Original research was conducted in 2007. Later data was updated in 2012 and 2017.
Armenia 2016 Legislative
Referendums
e-voting 2012 After the Constitutional amendment of 2015 no direct elections are held to elect the President. The power of electing the President is given to the legislature. The electoral law was amended in 2016, but no change has been introduced to external voting regulations. OSCE reports provide more details about the practicalities of voting from abroad in the last two elections (2012 and 2017, see the Source).
Aruba 2018 No external voting No external voting Not applicable As of April 2018, no methods for voting from abroad are mentioned in the legislation. 2017 elections results also do not contain separate statistics for external voting.
Australia 1990 Legislative
Sub-national
Referendums
Personal
Postal
1949 Personal voting was introduced since 1990.
Austria 1990 Presidential
Legislative
Referendums
European Parliamentary elections
Postal 1990 In Austria, external voting was introduced in 1990. Since 1990, no change has been introduced to external voting regulations. Data was updated in 2017.
Azerbaijan 2003 Presidential
Referendums
Personal 2000 Data has been updated in January 2018, based on the Electoral Law which was last amended in 2013.
Bahamas 2011 Legislative Personal 2012 The Parliamentary Elections (Amendment) Act 2011 grants the possibility of voting from abroad, but only to certain people: students and public officers working outside Bahamas and their spouses, on the condition that they have a valid address in a constituency in Bahamas. Those whose official address is outside Bahamas cannot register and vote overseas.
Bahrain 2002 Legislative
Referendums
Personal
e-voting
2010 Data has been updated in January 2018. The amendments to the Law by decree No. 14 for 2002 Exercising of Political Rights up to 2016 did not change voting from abroad provisions.
Bangladesh 1972 Legislative Postal No data International IDEA's initial research in 2007 revealed that in Bangladesh external voting was limited only to diplomatic staff or to those employed by the government. As of April 2018, there seems no change in this regard, even though some legislative reforms have been carried out in 2009 and 2013 on the subject matter. See Source and Comments sections for more details.
Barbados 1971 Legislative Personal No data Voting from abroad is restricted only to public officers serving overseas (data has been updated in April 2018).
Belarus 2000 Presidential
Legislative
Referendums
Personal 2004 Research was conducted in 2012, and update of the data has been made in January 2018.
Belgium 1998 Legislative
European Parliamentary elections
Personal
Postal
Proxy
1998 The first external voting was administered in 1998, the amendments in 2002 did not change the method of voting, they made only some clarification to make the system more transparent (update was conducted in 2017).
Belize 1998 Legislative
Referendums
Proxy No data The law was enacted in 1978, but the paragraph providing for proxy voting was included in the amendments done in 1998 (data has been updated in January 2018). Voting from abroad is restricted to a set of citizens who continue to have a permanent and continuous residence in Belize.
Benin 2018 Presidential Personal
Proxy
No data Later version of the Electoral Code of 2010 cannot be found online. It can be assumed that no changes have been made to external voting regulations. Media articles on 2016 Presidential Elections mention the widespread use of diaspora voting (see Source). Data has been updated in April 2018.
Bermuda 2018 No external voting No external voting Not applicable Parliamentary Election Act 1978 (as amended in 2012) does not contain provisions allowing out of country voting. Data has been updated in February 2018.
Bhutan 2008 Legislative
Referendums
Postal
e-voting
2008 In 2008 and 2013 elections only postal voting was used for voting from abroad. See sources for more information. (Data has been updated in January 2018.)
Bolivia 2009 Presidential
Referendums
Recall
Personal 2009 Voting from abroad was included in the Transient Electoral Regime Law finally passed by the Congress and issued on April 2009. In 2010, the external voting regulations were included in the Ley del Régimen Electoral N. 026. Amendments to the Law 026 made in 2013 and 2017 did not affect external voting regulations. Data has been updated in April 2018.
Bosnia and Herzegovina 2001 Presidential
Legislative
Sub-national
Personal
Postal
1996 Data was updated in 2017 using the last amendment to the Electoral Law made in 2016.
Botswana 1997 Legislative Personal 1997 Data has been updated in January 2018. There seems no change in external voting regulations of the country. Most recent elections were administered in 2014.
Brazil 1965 Presidential Personal 1989 Data has been updated in April 2018, using the latest version of the Código Eleitoral - Lei nº 4.737, de 15 de julho de 1965 (as amended in 2017).
Brunei Darussalam 2018 No provisions for direct elections No provisions for direct elections Not applicable Data has been updated in April 2018.
Bulgaria 2016 Presidential
Legislative
European Parliamentary elections
Personal 1990 Amendments to the Election Code in 2016 introduced some new procedural changes to voting from abroad. However, the methods of voting as well as the types of elections for which external voting is allowed remained the same. 
Burkina Faso 2015 No external voting No external voting Not applicable According to Article 265 of the new Electoral Code enacted in 2015, Burkinabe residing outside of the country will only be allowed to vote after 2015. Data has been updated in April 2018.
Burundi 2014 Presidential
Legislative
Referendums
Personal 2010 Data has been updated in January 2018, based on the Electoral Code of 2014.
Cambodia 2018 No external voting No external voting 1993 There are still debates in Cambodia about allowing out of country voting (see Source). However, as of April 2018 the NEC website does not contain any information about the adoption of specific regulations or amendments in the law in this regard.
Cameroon 2011 Presidential
Referendums
Personal 2011 No previous regulation was found addressing external voting, except Law No 2011/013. Thus, it is assumed the external voting was first allowed in Cameroon in 2011. (Data have been updated in February 2018)
Canada 2000 Legislative
Referendums
Postal 1945 Ordinary citizens can cast their vote from abroad as long as they have not been away from Canada for more than 5 consecutive years and they intend to reside again in Canada. (Data has been updated in April 2018.)
Cape Verde 1999 Presidential
Legislative
Personal 1991 Data has been updated in January 2018.
Cayman Islands 2004 Legislative Postal No data The year of 2004 has been assigned because the earlier revisions of the law providing for postal voting from abroad cannot be found online. Research was conducted in March 2018.
Central African Republic 2009 Presidential
Referendums
Personal No data Data has been updated in March 2018, based on the 2010 version of the Electoral Code (Loi N° 09.016 Portant Code Electoral De La Republique Centrafricaine).
Chad 2008 Presidential
Referendums
Personal 2001 Data has been updated in April 2018, using the Electoral Code of 2008. Amendments to this law after 2008, if any, cannot be located online.
Chile 2015 Presidential
Referendums
Personal 2017 Constitutional amendment of 2015 allowed voting for the first time for Chilean citizens residing abroad. The first election that this new regulation will be practised is the Presidential elections that will be held in November 2017. (Research was conducted in 2017)
China 2018 No provisions for direct elections No provisions for direct elections Not applicable
Colombia 1991 Presidential
Legislative
Senate
Personal 1994 for Senate, 2002 for Legislative Elections Data has been updated in March 2018 using the most recent electoral legislation.
Comoros 2010 Presidential
Referendums
Personal 2016 Law providing for external voting (see sources) was enacted in 2010. Data has been updated in January 2018.
Congo, Democratic Republic of 2015 Presidential Not yet decided Not applicable Article 7 of the Law No. 15/001 of 12 February 2015 does not contain anymore the fifth sub-section in the 2006 version of the same law (see data for 2006), which prohibited out of country voting. The new Article 5 of the law above allows out of country voting for Presidential elections. However, despite these provisions in the law, out of country voting was not allowed in the 30 December 2018 General Elections. (Research was conducted in January 2019)
Cook Islands 2004 Legislative Postal 1983 The reserved seat for external voters was abolished in 2004. Update of the data was conducted in April 2018.
Costa Rica 2016 Presidential
Referendums
Personal 2014 Data has been updated in 2018 using the 2016 version of the Ley 8765, Código Electoral.
Cote d'Ivoire 2000 Presidential Personal 1995 Since the 2000 version of the Electoral Code and up to its amendment in 2015, the provisions for out of country voting have not been changed. Even though the Electoral Code covers all the types of elections (Presidential, Legislative, and sub-national elections), it explicitly allows external voting only for Presidential elections (Article 3.2). The update was done in July 2017.
Croatia 2003 Presidential
Legislative
European Parliamentary elections
Personal 1992 Initial research was conducted in 2012. Data has been updated in 2017 taking into account the amendments made to the law in 2015.
Cuba 2012 No external voting No external voting Not applicable Research was conducted in 2012. No change has been made since then to the external voting regulations. Data has been updated in January 2018.
Cyprus 2011 Presidential
Legislative
European Parliamentary elections
Personal 2011 It was not possible to find the text of the amended version of the Elections Law that provides for voting from abroad. Therefore, we have taken the date of 2011 parliamentary elections, in which external voting was first practiced, as a starting date for external voting in Cyprus.
No change in out of country voting regulations was made as of February 2018. In the recent Legislative (2016) and Presidential (2018) elections, out of country voting was administered in several countries.
Cyprus (North) 2018 No external voting No external voting Not applicable No reports of overseas voting have been found in regards to the most recent elections in 2018.
Czech Republic 2013 Presidential
Legislative
Personal 2002 for Parliamentary and 2013 Presidential elections The first direct Presidential Elections in Czech Republic took place in 2013, and external voting was allowed. Data has been updated in 2017.
Denmark 2007 Legislative
Referendums
European Parliamentary elections
Personal
Postal
1980 Original research was conducted in 2007. However, out of country voting has developed in Denmark much earlier - since at least 1970s. See sources for further information about developments in Denmark regarding external voting regulations. (Data has been updated in January 2018)
Djibouti 1992 Presidential
Legislative
Referendums
Personal No data Data has been updated in April 2018. It is assumed the Electoral Code was last amended in 2012, since no later versions of the law can be found online. The later amendments (see source) do not affect external voting regulations that were set in the original texts of the law in 1992.
Dominica 2014 No external voting No external voting Not applicable OAS Report on 2014 legislative elections mentions the case of overseas voters returning home in order to vote. This indicates voting from abroad has still not been allowed in the country. Research has been conducted in January 2018.
Dominican Republic 2016 Presidential
Legislative
Personal 2004 In 2016 elections, Dominicans abroad elected seven representatives to the Lower Chamber (research was conducted in 2016)
Ecuador 2009 Presidential
Legislative
Personal 2006 Citizens abroad also elect six representatives to the National Assembly and can request referendums. (Data has been updated in April 2018 using.)
Egypt 2014 Presidential
Referendums
Personal 2012 The Articile 50 of the "Law No. 45 for the year 2014 Regulating the Exercise of Political Rights" contains a reference to external voting for referendums. Data has been updated in August 2018.
El Salvador 2013 Presidential Postal 2014 The law allowing external voting has been enacted in early 2013, allowing voting from abroad for presidential elections in 2014. For the Presidential Elections of 2019, in total 5,948 citizens were registered from abroad, out of 348,305 Salvadoran people living abroad. (Data has been updated in February 2019.)
Equatorial Guinea 2007 Presidential
Legislative
Personal No data Data is based on International IDEA's initial research conducted for the publication of Voting from Abroad: The International IDEA Handbook (2007). As of April 2018, electoral legislation is not available online, therefore it is not possible to update the data.
Eritrea 2018 In transition In transition Not applicable As of April 2018, country still does not hold direct national elections.
Estonia 2012 Legislative
Referendums
European Parliamentary elections
Personal
Postal
1992 E-voting was abandoned for external voting in 2012. Data has been updated in February 2019, based on the legislative documents amended in 2017 (see Sources).
Ethiopia 2018 No external voting No external voting Not applicable Electoral Law of 2007 is still in force - no reforms have been made in regards to diaspora voting (research was conducted in January 2018).
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) 1988 Legislative
Referendums
Postal
Proxy
No data External voting applies only to those who reside in the territory of the United Kingdom (data has been updated in April 2018).
Fiji 2014 Legislative Postal No data Data has been updated in 2017 using the Electoral Decree of 2014.
Finland 1998 Presidential
Legislative
Sub-national
Referendums
European Parliamentary elections
Personal 1958 Data was collected in 2007 and updated in 2012, and since then there were no amendments to regulations concerning external voting in Finland (checked in January 2018).
France 2017 Presidential
Legislative
Referendums
European Parliamentary elections
Some seats in the Senate
Personal
Proxy
1926 France abolished e-voting due to extremely high risk of cyber attack that could affect the conduct of elections. E-voting was used in France since 2012 but was reserved for French nationals abroad for the legislative elections - voting in the presidential elections can only take place in offices set up in consular premises or by correspondence, mainly for reasons of security.
Gabon 1998 Presidential
Referendums
Personal
Proxy
No data Data has been updated in February 2018. No changes have been found in the legislation providing for external voting practices. It seems the last amendment to the electoral law was made in 2008.
Gambia 2018 No external voting No external voting Not applicable EU Election Observation Mission to the Gambia 2017: “Despite the mandatory provision in the Elections Act which requires the IEC to maintain a register of Gambians living abroad, this provision has not yet been acted upon.” There are many media articles about petitions and calls for allowing Gambian diaspora to vote in national elections. Data has been updated in April 2018.
Georgia 2018 Presidential
Legislative
Referendums
Personal 1995 The amendments (up to 2017) to the Electoral Code do not alter provisions for external voting, except minor changes to the wording defining the limits of voters in electoral precincts abroad (see sources). Data has been updated in April 2018.
Germany 1985 Legislative
European Parliamentary elections
Postal 1949 By amendment of the Federal Elections Act in 1985, the voting from abroad was extended considerably through the introduction of the model of combination. See comments for more information.
Ghana 2017 Presidential
Legislative
Personal No data As of 2017, voting from abroad has not still been fully implemented in Ghana. EU EOM Report on 2016 elections did not mention external voting practices. There was even a High Court case in 2017 dealing with external voting: The Court ruled that the Election Commission should set the modalities for implementing ROPAA, which provides Ghanaian abroad the right to vote.
Gibraltar 1950 Legislative Postal 1969 Data has been updated in April 2018.
Greece 2014 European Parliamentary elections Personal 2014 The Constitution (Art. 51) guarantees the right to vote in parliamentary elections for persons living outside the country but there are no laws implementing this provision. Currently Greek citizens can vote only in EU Parliamentary elections. Data has been update in April 2018.
Grenada 2018 No external voting No external voting Not applicable As of April 2018, the electoral legislation of the country does not contain provisions for external voting.
Guatemala 2016 Presidential Personal Not yet implemented New regulation (Decreto Número 26-2016) officially allows overseas voting in Guatemala for the election of the President and Vice-President. In the latest elections in 2015, overseas voting was still not allowed.
Guernsey 1972 Legislative Postal No data Guernsey allows external voting only for a provisional stay abroad. Data has been updated in April 2018.
Guinea 2007 Presidential
Legislative
Personal 1993 Data has been updated in April 2018 using the Electoral Code of 2010. No later versions of the Code was found online.
Guinea-Bissau 2009 Presidential
Legislative
Personal No data In 2009, the Electoral Law was amended to allow external voting for Presidential Elections. (Data has been updated in April 2018.)
Guyana 1964 Legislative Personal 1993 Data has been updated in January 2018.
Haiti 2017 No external voting No external voting Not applicable Haiti's electoral legislation does not provide for any form of out of country voting.
Holy See (Vatican City State) 2018 No provisions for direct elections No provisions for direct elections Not applicable
Honduras 2004 Presidential Personal 2001 Amendments to the Electoral Law up to 2016 did not change voting from abroad regulations. Update has been done in January 2018.
Hungary 2013 Legislative
Referendums
European Parliamentary elections
Personal
Postal
2004 Hungary has amended the Electoral Procedures law in 2013 and introduced postal voting. Data has been reviewed and updated in March 2018.
Iceland 2000 Presidential
Legislative
Sub-national
Referendums
Personal 1949 Data has been updated in January 2018.
India 1961 Legislative Postal
Proxy
2004 Data has been updated in January 2018
Indonesia 1955 Presidential
Legislative
Personal
Postal
1955 Update has been made in January 2018
Iran, Islamic Republic of 1985 Presidential
Sub-national
Referendums
Personal 1980 Data has been updated in 2017
Iraq 2008 Legislative Personal 2005 Data has been updated in January 2018
Ireland 1923 Presidential
Legislative
Sub-national
Referendums
Postal 1992 There were many changes in the relevant acts since 1923, but the method of voting remained all times the same (postal) in each type of election (legislative, presidential, sub-national and referendums). It should be noted that public officials employed at diplomatic missions and members of the armed forces are the only categories of electors permitted to vote while abroad.
Isle of Man 2015 Legislative
Sub-national
Postal
Proxy
1976 Sections 25-27 of the Representation of the People Act have been amended in 2015 to explicitly remove the wordings related to external voting. However, the Guidance for Voters produced for 2016 elections still allows both postal and proxy voting for those who are outside the island on election day. (Data has been updated in April 2018)
Israel 1969 Legislative Personal No data Only specific groups of people (e.g. civil servants, military, employees of Jewish organizations) can vote from abroad. Data has been updated in January 2018.
Italy 2002 Legislative
Referendums
European Parliamentary elections
Some seats in the Senate
Postal 2003 Untill 2001 Italians had to return to country in order to be able to vote. Italians abroad also elect 12 members to the Parliament and 6 members to the Senate. Data has been updated in April 2018.
Jamaica 2018 No external voting No external voting Not applicable No reference to external voting has been found in the electoral legislation of Jamaica. Data has been updated in April 2018.
Japan 1998 Legislative Personal
Postal
2002 Amendment to the Public Offices Election Act in 1998, allowed participation of overseas voters in proportional representation component of elections to the House of Representatives (Japan has parallel electoral system consisting of proportional and single member districts). Further amendment to the law in 2006, eventually allowed Japanese overseas voters to vote in the district elections as well.
Jersey 2002 Legislative Postal No data Data has been updated in April 2018.
Jordan 2018 No external voting No external voting Not applicable Law on the Election of the House of Representatives (Law No 6 of 2016) still does not provide for external voting.
Kazakhstan 1995 Presidential
Legislative
Sub-national
Personal 1994 Since the enactment of the electoral law in 1995, there has been no change in the regulations related to voting from abroad. (Data has been updated in August 2017).
Kenya 2011 Presidential
Referendums
Personal 2013 There must be at least 3,000 Kenyan citizens in a particular country for a polling station to be established. For the 2017 elections, voter registration was conducted in Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda, South Africa and Rwanda. See Sources for more details.
Kiribati 2018 No external voting No external voting Not applicable Data has been updated in April 2018.
Korea, Dem. People's Republic of 2018 No external voting No external voting Not applicable Data has been updated in April 2018.
Korea, Republic of 2009 Presidential
Legislative
Referendums
Personal 2012 External voting was introduced in 2009 with relevant amendments to the Public Official Election Act (data has been updated in January 2018 based on the latest amendments made to the Public Official Election Act in 2015).
Kosovo 2008 Legislative Postal No data Data was updated in 2017 based on the data available for 2014 elections.
Kuwait 2012 No external voting No external voting Not applicable Data has been updated in January 2018. There are no reports about the implementation of out of country voting in Kuwait's recent elections in 2016.
Kyrgyzstan 2017 Presidential
Legislative
Personal 2000 Original research was conducted in 2012. Based on the amended law of 2015, data was updated in 2017. No change in regulations concerning external voting was made since 2012.
Lao People's Dem. Republic 2006 Legislative Personal 2006 Voters outside the country can vote only in capitals of some countries. Electoral Law does not contain provision for external voting. Findings are based on media reports. (Data has been updated in Feb 2018).
Latvia 2004 Legislative
Referendums
European Parliamentary elections
Personal
Postal
1992 Law on Elections to the European Parliament, which allows external voting for EU Parliamentary elections, was adopted in 2004. (Data has been updated in 2017)
Lebanon 2008 Legislative Personal 2018 The reform of electoral law in 2008 allowed external voting. External voting has been implemented for the first time in 2018 elections. (Data has been updated in May 2018)
Lesotho 1992 Legislative Personal No data External voting is allowed only for public officers employed in the service of the Government of Lesotho in another country, and their dependants. Data has been updated in April 2018 using the National Assembly Electoral Act (2011) which has not been amended by the 2017 elections.
Liberia 2004 No external voting No external voting No data It seems out of country voting was abandoned in 2004. See Article 5.5 of the Electoral Law in the Source. Data has been updated in February 2018 based on the last amendment to the Electoral Law made in 2014.
Libya 2014 Legislative Personal 2012 On 21 and 22 June 2014, 3,816 voters cast their ballots for the Council of Representatives (CoR) election in 22 cities disseminated across the 13 countries which hosted the Libyan out of country voting. Manchester and London (UK) witnessed the highest turnout. There were a total of 10,087 voters registered abroad for the CoR election.
Liechtenstein 1973 Legislative
Sub-national
Referendums
Postal 2004 Data has been updated in January 2018
Lithuania 2003 Presidential
Legislative
Referendums
European Parliamentary elections
Personal
Postal
The electoral law of Lithuania provided for external voting in 1992, and no change has been made in provisions in this regard since then. The latest amendment to the electoral law was made in 2016. The only exclusion is the elections to the European Parliament which is regulated by the Law on Elections to the European Parliament, adopted in 2003. (Data has been updated in July 2017.)
1992 1992
Luxembourg 2005 Legislative
Sub-national
Referendums
European Parliamentary elections
Postal 1984 External voting in referendums were permited by law in 2005. Data has been updated in April 2018.
Macedonia, former Yugoslav Republic (1993-) 2008 Presidential
Legislative
Personal 2009 Electoral Code of 2006 contains provisions only for registration of voters residing abroad, but it does not provide clear regulations for voting from abroad. Later amendments to the Electoral Code, especially the version of 2011 that is available online, contains very clear provisions in regards to voting from abroad. A paper by Ana Mijovska (see sources) states that the 2008 amendment to the Electoral Code allowed external voting for the first time. The copy of this amendment cannot be found online. However, the Venice Commission's opinion on the Election Code of 2008 clearly states that "as of 1 September 2009, when the new provisions in the Code will enter into force, voters who are temporarily abroad will be able to register to vote in Diplomatic Consular Offices." The later amendments to the Code up untill 2017 do not introduce major changes that would affect the coding in this database. Data has been updated in April 2018.
Madagascar 2018 No external voting No external voting Not applicable No change has happened to the external voting regulations. “Organic Law No 2018-008 Relating to the General System of Elections and Referendums” does not provide for external voting. Data has been updated in November 2018.
Malawi 2012 No external voting No external voting Not applicable There are no reports of out of country voting in Malawi's recent 2014 elections. Thus, we assume voting from abroad is still not allowed in the country. Data has been updated in January 2018.
Malaysia 2003 Legislative
Sub-national
Postal No data Research was conducted in 2012, and updated in January 2018.
Maldives 2012 Presidential
Legislative
Personal 2008 For the first time, polling arrangements were provided for citizens residing overseas in 2008 Presidential elections, however, only at selected locations (data updated in January 2018).
Mali 2006 Presidential
Legislative
Referendums
Personal
Proxy
1992 Data has been updated in March 2018 based on the 21 May 2013 amendment to the Electoral Code of 06-044 / 4 September 2006.
Malta 2017 No external voting No external voting Not applicable Since International IDEA's initial research in 2007 till 2017 there has been no change in Maltese regulations in regards to voting from abroad.
Marshall Islands 1980 Legislative
Referendums
Postal Postal voting provision for external residents dates to the original Act, so postal voting available at least since 1980. Data has been updated in March 2018, taking into account the latest amendment to the law made in 2016.
Mauritania 2009 Presidential
Legislative
Referendums
Personal 2009 Voting from abroad was first introduced with the enactment of the "Loi organique no 2009 - 022 du 02 avril 2009".
Mauritius 1976 Legislative Proxy No data Data has been updated in January 2018.
Mexico 2014 Presidential
Sub-national
Referendums
Senate
Postal
e-voting
2006 (see also comments in regards to introduction of e-voting) Voting from abroad can also be exerted for the election of Governors at state level if the Local Constitution allows it. Electronic devices for voting from abroad might be available for federal elections from 2018 on. Internet for voting from abroad was first used, but solely for local elections in Mexico City in 2012. Another change that happened in 2014 is that the new law was enacted on referendums, which also provide for voting from abroad.
Micronesia, Federated States of 2006 Legislative
Sub-national
Referendums
Personal
Postal
No data There seems no change has happened since the last update in 2012. Data has been reviewed in January 2018.
Moldova, Republic of 1997 Presidential
Legislative
Referendums
Personal 1993 The original research was conducted for the International IDEA’s Voting from Abroad Handbook (2007). Data was later updated in 2012 and 2017. The latest update has been done in February 2019, based on the last amendment to the Electoral Law made on 30.11.2018.
Monaco 2006 Legislative Proxy 2007 Data was updated in 2017
Mongolia 2016 Presidential Personal 2012 In 2016, voting from abroad was repealed for parliamentary elections; it was still available for presidential elections held in 2017. Data has been updated in April 2018.
Montenegro 1998 No external voting No external voting Not applicable Original research was conducted in 2007, data has been updated in April, 2018.
Montserrat 2000 Legislative Not specifed No data The law mentions availability of external voting only for those who study abroad (data has been updated in January 2018).
Morocco 2011 Legislative Proxy 2011 The first official report on voting from abroad was found in the EOM report based on 2011 elections (see sources). The relevant legislation providing for external voting was not found. Data has been updated in January 2018.
Mozambique 2004 Presidential
Legislative
Personal 2004 No change in external voting since 2004. Data has been updated in January 2018.
Myanmar 2010 Legislative
Referendums
Personal 2008 Update was conducted in 2017, based on the Election Law of 2010, and its amendment in 2016.
Namibia 2014 Presidential
Legislative
Personal 1994 Data has been updated in January 2018 based on the provisions in the Electoral Act, 2014 (Act No. 5).
Nauru 2004 Legislative
Referendums
Proxy 2004 The initial legal basis for proxy voting appeared in Electoral Act 1965, however the Electoral (Proxy Voting) Regulations was enacted in 2004. Therefore we put the starting year as 2004. It should be noted also that proxy voting was extended to referendums only in 2010 by Referendum Procedures (Proxy Voting) Regulations 2010. Data was updated in August 2017, also taking into account the Electoral Act of 2016.
Nepal 2018 No external voting No external voting Not applicable IFES Report on 2017 Elections in Nepal: "While an estimated four million eligible Nepali voters are working abroad, the new legal framework does not provide for out-of-country voting for these elections." Data has been updated in April 2018.
Netherlands 1989 Legislative
European Parliamentary elections
Postal
Proxy
1989 In 2004 there was an experiment with internet voting for the European Elections for Dutch citizens living abroad. However, e-voting was abandoned for all elections in Netherlands in 2007. (Data has been reviewed in April 2018.)
Netherlands Antilles 2007 No external voting No external voting Not applicable The country has been dissolved in 2010
New Zealand 2000 Legislative
Sub-national
Referendums
Personal
Postal
Fax
No data Regulations for posting voting in referendums was enacted in 2000. Data has been reviewed in February 2018.
Nicaragua 2016 Presidential Personal Not yet applied The 2016 amendment to the Electoral Law does not change the Article 122. However, still external voting has not been applied in 2016 elections.
Niger 2010 Presidential
Legislative
Referendums
Personal No data Data has been updated in January 2018.
Nigeria 2019 No external voting No external voting Not applicable There are many debates and discussions in the country about the introduction of external voting for Diaspora. However, no change has occurred in this regards since many years. According to one estimate, there are more than 15 million people living outside the country.
Niue 2018 No external voting No external voting Not applicable Data has been updated in April 2018. The Niue Assembly Act 1966 (consolidated version of 2006) is available in the Niue government website, which indicates the currency of the law.
Norway 2002 Legislative
Sub-national
Postal 1921 Original research was conducted in 2007, data has been updated in January 2018.
Oman 2015 Legislative Personal No data Translated texts of electoral legislation are not available. Data are based on news reports related to 2015 legislative elections. Data has been updated in April 2018.
Pakistan 2018 Legislative
Sub-national
e-voting 2018 Internet voting was first implemented on 14 October, 2018 for bye-elections in 37 constituencies.
Palau 1981 Presidential
Legislative
Sub-national
Referendums
Personal
Postal
1981 Data has been updated in April 2018.
Panama 2018 Presidential Personal
e-voting
2009 for postal; 2014 for internet Even though the Decree 12 of the Electoral Tribunal from 21 March 2018 provides for the methods of voting from abroad in 2019 General Elections, the FAQ section of the website of the Electoral Tribunal states that the mechanisms of voting from abroad are being evaluated (as of 7 April 2018).
Papua New Guinea 1997 Legislative Postal 1997 Data has been updated in January 2018.
Paraguay 2013 Presidential
Senatorial
Mercosur
Personal 2013 2011 amendment to the Constitution made out of country voting available for Paraguayans living abroad. 21,982 Paraguayans were registered abroad to be eligible to vote in the General Election of 2013.
Peru 1993 Presidential
Legislative
Referendums
Personal 1980 Data have updated in March 2018
Philippines 2003 Presidential
Legislative
Senate
Personal
Postal
2004 Out of country voting was first allowed in Philippines after the enactment of The Overseas Absentee Voting Act of 2003. For the first time in Philippine history, Filipinos abroad were able to vote for the president, the vice-president, members of the Senate and the party list members of the House of Representatives in the 2004 national elections. Data has been reviewed in February 2018.
Pitcairn Islands 2008 Legislative Proxy 2001 Data has been updated in April 2018, using the 2017 version of the Local Government Ordinance, which provides for election rules.
Poland 2011 Presidential
Legislative
Referendums
European Parliamentary elections
The Senate
Personal
Postal
1990 Data has been updated in January 2018
Portugal 1997 Presidential
Legislative
Referendums
European Parliamentary elections
Personal
Postal
1975 The year 1997 marks a major change in the process of external voting in Portugal. The constitution was amended to allow Portuguese citizens resident abroad to vote in presidential elections and national referendums. 2001 marks the first year of external voting allowed for Presidential elections. Data has been updated in April 2018 based on the latest amendments made to relevant legislation providing for external voting.
Qatar 2018 No provisions for direct elections No provisions for direct elections Not applicable The Qatari government is still working on legislative measures to hold Shura Council elections. According to a news report (see sources), the elections should take place in 2019.
Republic of The Congo (Brazzaville) 2001 Presidential
Legislative
Personal No data Only registration of voters in foreign embassies and consulates is defined in the law, no provisions for diaspora voting in foreign countries. Some media articles report about the battle for the right to vote of the Congolese diaspora. Data has been updated in February 2018.
Romania 2015 Presidential
Legislative
Referendums
European Parliamentary elections
Senate
Personal
Postal
1990 In 2015, Romania has introduced postal voting for citizens residing abroad.
Russian Federation 2003 Presidential
Legislative
Sub-national
Referendums
Personal No data Data last updated in August 2017
Rwanda 2010 Presidential
Legislative
Referendums
Personal 2003 Some laws back to 2003 also provide for external voting (Organic law no 17/2003 of 07/07/2003). Data has been updated in February 2018.
Saint Helena 2009 Legislative Proxy No data The earliest legal provision for voting from abroad was located in the Elections Ordinance 2009. Data has been updated in March 2018 using the revised editions of the laws in 2017.
Saint Kitts and Nevis 2018 No external voting No external voting Not applicable Overseas voters may be registered to vote in SKN if they maintain a domicile there, but they must travel back to SKN to vote in person. Data has been updated in April 2018.
Saint Lucia 2018 No external voting No external voting Not applicable Research was conducted in March 2018.
Saint Vincent and The Grenadines 2018 No external voting No external voting Not applicable Voters residing abroad have to come back to the island in order to be able to vote. Data has been updated in April 2018, partly based on the report produced on the latest elections held in 2015.
Samoa 2007 No external voting No external voting Not applicable Original data comes from International IDEA's Voting from Abroad Handbook, published in 2007. The data was then updated in 2012 and also in 2017 based on amended Electoral Act of 2015.
San Marino 2018 No external voting No external voting Not applicable Voters who reside abroad have to travel to San Marino in order to cast their vote in person. The only change in external voting regulations was the amendment made to the Electoral Law in 2016 re-introducing the right of voters from abroad to cast a preferential vote. Before this amendment, voters could only vote for a candidate list and not for their preferred candidates. Data has been updated in April 2018.
Sao Tome and Principe 1990 Presidential
Legislative
Personal No data Electoral Law no 11/90 of 26 November 1990 was amended in 2006 with no changes in external voting practices (data updated in January 2018).
Saudi Arabia 2018 No provisions for direct elections No provisions for direct elections Not applicable Data has been updated in April 2018.
Senegal 2017 Presidential
Legislative
Referendums
Personal 1993 Starting from 2017, Diaspora can elect 15 members to the Parliament. See Article 146 of the Electoral Code in the Source section for the list of foreign districts.
Serbia 2000 Presidential
Legislative
Personal No data Data has been updated in January 2018
Seychelles 1993 No external voting No external voting Not applicable Constitution (1993, last amended in 2017) clearly outlaws external voting. Data has been updated in February 2018.
Sierra Leone 2012 No external voting No external voting Not applicable The 2012 law mentions only registration of voters outside of the country, but no regulations exist at the moment regarding their actual voting from abroad. No amendment to the 2012 law has been made as of February 2018.
Singapore 2006 Presidential
Legislative
Personal 2006 No changes have been introduced to external voting procedures since the initial research in 2006 (data has been updated in January 2018).
Slovakia 2004 Legislative Postal No data Data has been updated in January 2018
Slovenia 1992 Presidential
Legislative
Referendums
European Parliamentary elections
Personal
Postal
1992 Data has been updated in January 2018
Solomon Islands 2018 No external voting No external voting Not applicable Data has been updated in March 2018 using the most recent electoral legislation.
Somalia 2018 No provisions for direct elections No provisions for direct elections Not applicable The Constitution of 2012 provides for universal suffrage, direct elections of the members of the two chambers of parliament. However, specific laws on elections as foreseen by the Provisional Constitution (art. 47) have not been developed yet. Data has been updated in January 2018.
South Africa 1998 Legislative Personal 1994 Data has been updated in January 2018.
South Sudan 2012 Presidential
Referendums
Not yet decided 2011 Election Act of 2012 provides only for registration of voters residing abroad. No regulations have been found regarding the actual out of country voting of South Sudanese nationals. Data has been updated in February 2018.
Spain 2017 Legislative
Sub-national
Referendums
European Parliamentary elections
Postal 1985 Data has been updated in January 2018
Sri Lanka 2018 No external voting No external voting Not applicable Sri Lankans cannot vote from abroad. However, debates are ongoing about allowing external voting for country's migrant population which estimated to be about 1.7 million. Data has been updated in April 2018.
State of Palestine 2007 No external voting No external voting Not applicable No change was introduced in regards to out of country voting since 2007. Data has been updated in April 2018.
Sudan 2008 Presidential
Referendums
Personal 1986 Data has been updated in January 2018.
Suriname 2018 No external voting No external voting Not applicable Electoral Code does not provide for any means to vote from abroad. Data has been updated in April 2018.
Swaziland 2012 No external voting No external voting Not applicable Data has been updated in January 2018.
Sweden 2005 Legislative
Sub-national
Referendums
European Parliamentary elections
Personal
Postal
Vote by messenger
1968 Latest version of the legislation providing for external voting was enacted in 2005, however external voting in Sweden started in 1968. Data has been updated in April 2018.
Switzerland 2011 Legislative
Sub-national
Referendums
Personal
Postal
e-voting
1977 The initiative for e-voting started with the introduction of amendment to the Federal Law on Political Rights in 1994 (Article 8a) to initiate pilot schemes in some cantons. Later in 2008 e-voting from abroad was introduced in several cantonal level elections. At the national level, e-voting from abroad was introduced in 2011 federal elections. See sources of the data for more details. (Data has been updated in April 2018).
Syrian Arab Republic 2018 Presidential
Legislative
Personal No data There are no legal documents specifying external voting procedures for Syrians living abroad. However, it is customary practice that has been done since many years. Data has been reviewed in April 2018.
Taiwan 2018 No external voting No external voting Not applicable Eligible voters residing abroad have to return to their original domicile in order to vote. Data has been updated in April 2018.
Tajikistan 1994 Presidential
Legislative
Referendums
Personal 1994 The initial provisions for external voting appeared in the electoral legislation of early 1990s. Later amendments to those legislation didn't affect the modes of voting from abroad. Data has been updated in April 2018.
Tanzania, United Republic of 2015 No external voting No external voting Not applicable In the latest elections held in 2015, voting from abroad was not allowed. Data has been updated in January 2018.
Thailand 2000 Legislative Personal
Postal
2000 Election Commission establishes polling station in a foreign country if more than five hundred voters express desire to vote in that country. If the total number of voters is less than five hundred, the Election Commission may arrange for voting by post or other procedures. The regulations for external voting have not been changed since 2000. There might be changes in the electoral legislation for the upcoming elections in 2019. Data has been reviewed in April 2018.
Timor-Leste 2017 Presidential
Legislative
Personal 2017 for Presidential and Parliamentary elections 2017 was the first year when external voting was allowed in Timor Leste, for both Parliamentary and Presidential Elections.
Togo 2012 Presidential
Legislative
Sub-national
Referendums
Proxy No data Data has been updated in January 2018, based on the Electoral Code of 2012, last amended in 2013.
Tokelau 2018 No data No data 2006 The text of the "National Election Rules 2013" cited in the Government website cannot be found online. Therefore, it is impossible to identify if external voting is allowed. The government website (see Sources) provides limited information about voter eligibility (research was conducted in April 2018).
Tonga 2012 No external voting No external voting Not applicable Since the original research by IDEA in 2007 and update of the data in 2012, there have been no electoral reforms to allow out of country voting in Tonga. Research was conducted in September, 2017.
Trinidad and Tobago 2018 No external voting No external voting Not applicable Constitution and Representation of the People Act make no references to provisions for external voting. Data has been updated in April 2018.
Tunisia 2014 Presidential
Legislative
Referendums
Personal 2004 Although the 2017 amendments to the Organic Law on Elections and Referendums cover municipal and regional elections, the application of external voting for these types of elections to be seen in practice in the next municipal and regional elections. Data was updated in 2017.
Turkey 2008 Presidential
Legislative
Referendums
Personal
e-voting
Voting at the borders
2014 In Turkey, overseas voting was made possible for the first time in 1987 through an amendment of the electoral law (Law No. 298, 26/4/1961) but voters could only vote at the polling stations set up at the borders. This did not satisfy the definition of voting from abroad as those residing abroad had to travel to Turkey to cast their votes. The Amendment (no. 4121) to Article 67 of the Constitution in 1995 gave the external voting right a constitutional basis. However, still in the four general elections between 1995 and 2007, voting at the border remained the only method. The 2008 amendment to electoral law eventually enabled overseas voters to vote in general elections, the election of the president and referenda in Turkey. Due to some challenges, the external voting was not practically realized until the Presidential elections which took place on 10 August 2014. (Source: “Turkey: Voting from abroad in 2015 general elections”, See full text in the Sources.)
Turkmenistan 2012 Presidential
Legislative
Referendums
Personal 2012 The Law of Turkmenistan on Referendums enacted in 2012 allowed external voting for referendums. The Electoral Code of 2013 unified all the electoral legislation of the country into one legal document. The first official report of out of country voting appears in the OSCE/ODIHR Needs Assessment Mission Report on Presidential Election of 12 February 2012. Data has been updated in April 2018.
Turks and Caicos Islands 2018 No external voting No external voting Not applicable Section 12 of the Elections Ordinance (as of December 2014) provides only for the registration of some groups of foreign residents, but not for their vote in the elections. Section 40 (Where voters shall vote) does not contain any provisions related to voting outside the islands. The amendments to the legislation up to 2018 have been checked and no changes were found in regards to external voting.
Tuvalu 2012 No external voting No external voting Not applicable Data has been updated in February 2018. No revisions to the electoral law was made since 2008.
Uganda 2012 No external voting No external voting Not applicable Legislation does not provide for external voting. However, Constitution (Article 76) provides for the possibility of enabling proxy voting by the Act of the Parliament. Such act has not been enacted. (Data has been updated in February 2018).
Ukraine 2013 Presidential
Legislative
Referendums
Personal 1994 The change in the law that happened in 2013 was the restriction of the right to vote at the elections of MPs only in the nationwide election district. Ukraine has parallel electoral system in which voters can vote for candidates in single member districts and also for nationwide multi-member election district.
United Arab Emirates 2018 No provisions for direct elections No provisions for direct elections Not applicable The country holds indirect elections. The first such elections were held in 2006, and the most recent one in 2015. There are no regulations for out of country voting in the electoral regulations of the country. Data has been updated in April 2018.
United Kingdom 2011 Legislative
Referendums
Postal
Proxy
1918 British citizens abroad voted in a referendum held in 2011
United States 2000 Presidential
Legislative
Sub-national
Referendums
Personal
e-voting
1942 Regulations for voting from abroad has not changed since 1986, except the introduction of e-voting in 2000 for Presidential elections.
Uruguay 2012 No external voting No external voting Not applicable An initiative to allow external voting was rejected in a national referendum held on October 2009 (data updated in January 2018).
Uzbekistan 1991 Presidential
Legislative
Referendums
Personal 1994 External voting takes place mainly in the Embassies of Uzbekistan. In countries where Uzbekistan does not have Embassies, such as Sweden, voters will have to travel to a nearest country where there is Embassy (e.g. in Germany) to cast their vote.
Vanuatu 1982 Legislative
Referendums
Proxy 1980 Data has been updated in February 2018.
Venezuela 2018 Presidential Personal 1998 Electoral Law (as of April 2018) does not clearly specify to which types of elections voting from abroad provisions apply. However, looking at the electoral regulations in the CNE website, one can observe that guidelines for external voting are provided only for Presidential elections, while such guidelines do not exist for Parliamentary elections. Thus, we assume voting from abroad is still allowed only for Presidential elections.
Viet Nam 2010 No external voting No external voting Not applicable Electoral Law (as of 2010) does not contain provision for external voting. Data has been updated in April 2018.
Virgin Islands, British 2018 No external voting No external voting Not applicable The EOM Report on the latest General Elections in 2015 highlights the absence of external voting and recommends the voting options such as postal or proxy voting for those who stay abroad. Data has been updated in April 2018.
Yemen 2001 Presidential
Referendums
Personal Not yet implemented Voting from abroad did not take place in 2003, 2006 and 2012 elections.
Zambia 2016 No external voting No external voting Not applicable External voting was still not allowed in the recent 2016 elections. Data has been updated in January 2018.
Zimbabwe 2012 Presidential
Legislative
Postal 1980 Amendments made in 2012 introduced application to postal voting by email, and excluded those "on a duty as a member of a disciplined force or as an electoral officer or monitor" from postal voting. Data has been updated in January 2018.
Summary of Data  
Election type
Value Count
No external voting 52 (24.1%)
Presidential 90 (41.7%)
Legislative 126 (58.3%)
Sub-national 23 (10.6%)
Referendums 73 (33.8%)
In transition 1 (0.5%)
No provisions for direct elections 7 (3.2%)
No data 1 (0.5%)
European Parliamentary elections 23 (10.6%)
Other 10 (4.6%)
Total 216
Missing data 0
Grand total 216
Voting method
Value Count
Personal 109 (50.5%)
No external voting 52 (24.1%)
Postal 52 (24.1%)
Proxy 20 (9.3%)
e-voting 9 (4.2%)
Fax 1 (0.5%)
Not yet decided 3 (1.4%)
In transition 1 (0.5%)
No provisions for direct elections 7 (3.2%)
No data 1 (0.5%)
Other 3 (1.4%)
Total 216
Missing data 0
Grand total 216
First year
Value Count
Not applicable 58 (26.9%)
No data 34 (15.7%)
Other 124 (57.4%)
Total 216
Missing data 0
Grand total 216
Comments
Total 214
Missing data 2
Grand total 216