Gender Quotas Database


Global General Resources


  • Dahlerup, Drude 2006 'Conclusion' in Dahlerup, D. (ed.) Women, Quotas and Politics, London/New York: Routledge, pp.293-307.
  • Bacchi, Carol 2006 'Arguing for and against quotas: theoretical issues', in Dahlerup, D. (ed.) Women, Quotas and Politics, London/New York: Routledge, pp. 32-51.
  • Dahlerup, Drude 2006 'Introduction' in Dahlerup, D. (ed.) Women, Quotas and Politics, London/New York: Routledge, pp. 3-31.
  • Jabre, Kareen 2006 'Affirmative action at the IPU' in Dahlerup, D. (ed.) Women, Quotas and Politics, London/New York: Routledge, pp.266-272.
  • Matland, Richard E. 2006 'Electoral quotas: frequency and effectiveness' in Dahlerup, D. (ed.) Women, Quotas and Politics, London/New York: Routledge, pp.275-292.
  • Ballington, Julie and Azza Karam (eds) (2005) Women in Parliament. Beyond Numbers, Revised edition. Stockholm: International IDEA. (
  • Htun, Mala and Jones, Mark P. 2002. "Engendering the Right to Participate in Decision Making: Electoral Quotas and Women's Leadership in Latin America," in G ender and the Politics of Rights and Democracy inLatin America. Craske, Nikki and Molyneux, Maxine (eds.) New York: Palgrave. Pp 32-56
  • Phillips, Anne, (ed.). 1998. Feminism & Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press
  • Griffin, Gabriele & Rosi Bradotti. 2002. Thinking Differently. A Reader in European Women's Studies.
  • Norris, Pippa and Ronald Inglehart. 2001. "Cultural Obstacles to Equal Representation." Journal of Democracy, 12, no. 3. pp. 126-140.
  • Caul, Miki. 2001. "Political Parties and the Adoption of Candidate Gender Quotas: A Cross-National Analysis." The Journal of Politics 63, no. 4. pp. 1214-1229.
  • Klausen, Jytte and Charles S. Maier (eds.). 2001. Has Liberalism Failed Women?:Parity, Quotas, and Political Representation. New York: St. Martin's Press.
  • Joseph, Suad & Susan Slymovics. 2001. Women and Power in theMiddle East. Penn. Universitry of Pennsylvania Press.
  • Women's Leadership Conference of the Americas. 2001. Women and Power in the Americas: A Report Card. Washington: Women's Leadership Conference of the Americas.
  • Marques-Pereira, Bèrengére and Nolasco, Patricio. 2001. La représentation politique des femmes Amérique Latine. Brussels: L`Harmattan.
  • Jalusic, Vlasta and Milica G. Antic. 2001. Women - Politics - Equal Opportunities. Zenske - Politike ? Moznosti. Ljublijana, Politikz.
  • Lenoir, N. 2001. "The Representation of Women in Politics: From Quotas to Parity in Elections". International and Comparative Law Quarterly. 50, 2. pp. 217-247.
  • Yoon, M. Y. 2001. "Democratization and Women's Legislative Representation in Sub-Saharan Africa". Democratization, 8, no. 2. . pp. 169-190.
  • Norris, Pippa. 2000a. "Women's Representation and Electoral Systems" Rose, R. (ed.) TheInternational Encyclopedia of Elections. Washington DC: CQ Press. pp.348-351.
  • United Nation Development Programme. 2000. Women's Political Participation and Good Governance: 21st Century Challenges. United Nation Development Programme.
  • Siim, Birte. 2000. Gender and Citizenship. Politics and Agency inFrance,BritainandDenmark. Cambridge University Press.
  • Inglehart, Ronald and Pippa Norris. 2000. "The Developmental Theory of the Gender Gap: Women' s and Men' s Voting Behavior in Global Perspective". International Political Science Review, vol. 21(4) pp. 441-462.
  • Irigaray, Luce.Democracy begins between two. 2000. (" Democrazia comincia a due" translated by Kirsteen Anderson). London : Athlone Press.
  • Htun, Mala N. 2000. "Women's Leadership in Latin America: Trends and Challenges." in Politics Matters: A Dialogue of Women Political Leaders. Washington: Inter-American Development Bank, Inter-American Dialogue, and International Center for Research on Women. pp 13-26
  • Lovenduski, Joni. 2000. "Women and Politics: Minority Representation or Critical Mass?" Parliamentary Affairs, 54, no. 4. pp. 743-758.
  • Inter-Parliamentary Union. Politics 2000a. Women's Insight. Geneva: Inter-Parliamentary Union.
  • Inter-Parliamentary Union. 2000b. Participation of Women in Political Life. Geneva: Inter-Parliamentary Union.
  • Council of Europe. 2000. Positive Action in the Field of Equality between Women and Men. EG-S-PA, Division Equality between Women and Men, Council of Europe. Strasbourg.
  • Reynolds, Andrew. 1999. Women in African Legislatures and Executives: The Slow Climb to Power. Johannesburg: Electoral Institute of South Africa.
  • Lovenduski, Joni (ed.). 1999. Feminism and Politics. Dartmouth: Ashgate Publishing, Limited.
  • Squires, Judith. 1999. Gender in Political Theory. Polity Press.
  • Peters, Anne. 1999. Women, Quotas and Constitutions: A Comparative Study of Affirmative Action for Women in American, German, European Community and International Law. Kluwer Law International: Dordrecht, London, Boston.
  • Bergqvist, Christina et al (eds.). 1999. Equal Democracies? Gender and Politics in the Nordic Countries. Oslo: Scandinavian University Press.
  • Walby, Sylvia (ed.). 1999. New Agendas for Women? Basingstoke: Macmillan.
  • Inter-Parliamentary Union. 1999a. Women in Politics - World Bibliography. Geneva: Inter-Parliamentary Union.
  • Inter-Parliamentary Union. 1999b. Participation of Women in Public Life. Geneva: Inter-Parliamentary Union.
  • Craske, Nikki. 1999. Women and Politics inLatin America. Cambridge: Polity Press.
  • Caul, Miki. 1999. "Women's Representation in Parliament: The Role of Political Parties." Party Politics 5, no. 1. pp. 79-98.
  • Bacchi, Carol Lee. 1999. Women, Politics and Policy. London: Sage.
  • Jaquette, Jane S. And Wolchik, Sharon L. (eds.) 1998. Women and Democracy:Latin Americaand Central andEastern Europe. Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press.
  • Hoecker, B (ed). 1998. Handbuch Politische Partizipation von Frauen in Europa. Opladen: Leske und Budrich.
  • Inter-Parliamentary Union. 1998. Women in Politics - World Bibliography. Geneva: Inter-Parliamentary Union.
  • Dahlerup, Drude. 1998. "Using Quotas to Increase Women's Political Representation." Azza Karam (ed.) Chapter 4. Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers. (
  • Matland, Richard E. 1998a. "Enhancing Women's Political Participation: Legislative Recruitment and Electoral Systems." Azza Karam (ed.) Chapter 3. Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers. (
  • Matland, Richard E. 1998b. "Women's Representation in National Legislatures: Developed and Developing Countries." Legislative Studies Quarterly, 23, no. 1. pp. 109-125.
  • Inter-Parliamentary Union. 1997b. Democracy Still in the Making: A World Comparative Study. Geneva: Inter-Parliamentary Union.
  • Norris, Pippa. 1997a. "Equality strategies and political representation.". pp. 46-59 in Sex Equality Policy in Western Europe, ed. Frances Gardiner. New York: Routledge.
  • Inter-Parliamentary Union. 1997a. TowardsPartnership Between Men and Women in Politics. Geneva: Inter-Parliamentary Union.
  • Lovenduski, Joni. 1997. "Gender Politics: A Breakthrough for Women?" Parliamentary Affairs, vol. 50, (4), pp.708-19.
  • Leijenaar, Monique. 1997. How to Create a Gender Balance in Political Decision-making. European Commission, Directorate-General for Employment, Industrial Relations and Social Affairs, Brussels.
  • Norris, Pippa, (ed.). 1997b. Women, Media, and Politics. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Lawrence LeDuc, Richard G.Niemi, Pippa Norris (eds.). 1996. Comparing Democracies. Elections and Voting in Global Perspective. SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks: London, New Delhi.
  • Bacchi, Carol Lee. 1996. Politics of Affirmative Actions. Women, Equality and Category Politics. London: Sage.
  • Lovenduski, Joni and Pippa Norris (eds.). 1996. Women in Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Squires, Judith. 1996. 'Quotas for Women: Fair Representation?' J. Lovenduksi and P. Norris, (eds.) Women and Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp.73-90.
  • Phillips, Anne. "Quotas for women". 1995. Phillips, Anne. The Politics of Presence. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp.56-83.
  • Rule, Wilma and Joseph F. Zimmerman. 1994. Electoral Systems in Comparative Perspective: Their Impact on Women and Minorities. Westport CT: Greenwood Press
  • Hofmann, C. 1994. Issue Brief on Quota Systems for Women's Political Participation. Quezon City, Philippines: Women in Politics Program, Congressional Research and Training Service.
  • Nelson, J. Barbara and Najma Chowdhury.1994. Women and Politics Worldwide. New Heaven and London: Yale Univ. Press.
  • Lovenduski, Joni and Pippa Norris (eds.). 1993. Gender and Party Politics. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
  • Funk, Naanette & Magda Mueller (eds.).1993. Gender Politics and Post-Communism. Routledge.
  • Phillips, Anne. 1991. Engendering Democracy. Cambridge: Polity Press.
  • Jones, Mark and Patricio Navia. 'Assessing the Effectiveness of Gender Quotas in Open-List Proportional Representation Electoral Systems.'Social Science Quarterly 80, no.2, p. 341.
  • Young, Iris M. 1990. Justice and the Politics of Difference. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Pateman, Carole. 1989. The Disorder of Women: Democracy, Feminism and Political Theory. Cambridge: Polity.
  • Lang, Regina. 1989. Frauenquoten. Der einen Freud, des anderen Leid. Verlag J.H.W.Dietz Nachf.
  • Dahlerup, Drude. 1988. "From a Small to a Large Minority", Scandinavian Political Studies. Vol.11, no.4, pp.275-298.
  • Rule, Wilma. "Electoral Systems, Contextual Factors and Women's Opportunity for Election to Parliament in Twenty-Three Democracies." 1987. Western Political Quarterly, 40(3). pp. 477-498.
  • United Nations, ‘Burundi and Women’s Political Participation – the Role of Onub’,'s%20Political%20Participation.pdf

Other Links

Inter-Parliamentary Union.

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliament in 2015: The year in review”:

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliament: 20 years in review”:

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliaments: World and Regional Averages”:

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliaments: World Classification ”:

Women's Environment and Development Organization,

Online Women in Politics,

Note: The sources and additional reading indicated above are mostly only available in English. We welcome recommendations of additional sources in other languages.



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