Gender Quotas Database


Global General Resources


  • Bacchi, Carol 2006 'Arguing for and against quotas: theoretical issues', in Dahlerup, D. (ed.) Women, Quotas and Politics, London/New York: Routledge, pp. 32-51.
  • Dahlerup, Drude 2006 'Introduction' in Dahlerup, D. (ed.) Women, Quotas and Politics, London/New York: Routledge, pp. 3-31.
  • Jabre, Kareen 2006 'Affirmative action at the IPU' in Dahlerup, D. (ed.) Women, Quotas and Politics, London/New York: Routledge, pp.266-272.
  • Matland, Richard E. 2006 'Electoral quotas: frequency and effectiveness' in Dahlerup, D. (ed.) Women, Quotas and Politics, London/New York: Routledge, pp.275-292.
  • Dahlerup, Drude 2006 'Conclusion' in Dahlerup, D. (ed.) Women, Quotas and Politics, London/New York: Routledge, pp.293-307.
  • Ballington, Julie and Azza Karam (eds) (2005) Women in Parliament. Beyond Numbers, Revised edition. Stockholm: International IDEA. (
  • Griffin, Gabriele & Rosi Bradotti. 2002. Thinking Differently. A Reader in European Women's Studies.
  • Htun, Mala and Jones, Mark P. 2002. "Engendering the Right to Participate in Decision Making: Electoral Quotas and Women's Leadership in Latin America," in G ender and the Politics of Rights and Democracy inLatin America. Craske, Nikki and Molyneux, Maxine (eds.) New York: Palgrave. Pp 32-56
  • Phillips, Anne, (ed.). 1998. Feminism & Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press
  • Caul, Miki. 2001. "Political Parties and the Adoption of Candidate Gender Quotas: A Cross-National Analysis." The Journal of Politics 63, no. 4. pp. 1214-1229.
  • Jalusic, Vlasta and Milica G. Antic. 2001. Women - Politics - Equal Opportunities. Zenske - Politike ? Moznosti. Ljublijana, Politikz.
  • Joseph, Suad & Susan Slymovics. 2001. Women and Power in theMiddle East. Penn. Universitry of Pennsylvania Press.
  • Klausen, Jytte and Charles S. Maier (eds.). 2001. Has Liberalism Failed Women?:Parity, Quotas, and Political Representation. New York: St. Martin's Press.
  • Lenoir, N. 2001. "The Representation of Women in Politics: From Quotas to Parity in Elections". International and Comparative Law Quarterly. 50, 2. pp. 217-247.
  • Marques-Pereira, Bèrengére and Nolasco, Patricio. 2001. La représentation politique des femmes Amérique Latine. Brussels: L`Harmattan.
  • Norris, Pippa and Ronald Inglehart. 2001. "Cultural Obstacles to Equal Representation." Journal of Democracy, 12, no. 3. pp. 126-140.
  • Women's Leadership Conference of the Americas. 2001. Women and Power in the Americas: A Report Card. Washington: Women's Leadership Conference of the Americas.
  • Yoon, M. Y. 2001. "Democratization and Women's Legislative Representation in Sub-Saharan Africa". Democratization, 8, no. 2. . pp. 169-190.
  • Inter-Parliamentary Union. Politics 2000a. Women's Insight. Geneva: Inter-Parliamentary Union.
  • Inter-Parliamentary Union. 2000b. Participation of Women in Political Life. Geneva: Inter-Parliamentary Union.
  • Council of Europe. 2000. Positive Action in the Field of Equality between Women and Men. EG-S-PA, Division Equality between Women and Men, Council of Europe. Strasbourg.
  • Htun, Mala N. 2000. "Women's Leadership in Latin America: Trends and Challenges." in Politics Matters: A Dialogue of Women Political Leaders. Washington: Inter-American Development Bank, Inter-American Dialogue, and International Center for Research on Women. pp 13-26
  • Irigaray, Luce.Democracy begins between two. 2000. (" Democrazia comincia a due" translated by Kirsteen Anderson). London : Athlone Press.
  • Inglehart, Ronald and Pippa Norris. 2000. "The Developmental Theory of the Gender Gap: Women' s and Men' s Voting Behavior in Global Perspective". International Political Science Review, vol. 21(4) pp. 441-462.
  • Lovenduski, Joni. 2000. "Women and Politics: Minority Representation or Critical Mass?" Parliamentary Affairs, 54, no. 4. pp. 743-758.
  • Norris, Pippa. 2000a. "Women's Representation and Electoral Systems" Rose, R. (ed.) TheInternational Encyclopedia of Elections. Washington DC: CQ Press. pp.348-351.
  • Siim, Birte. 2000. Gender and Citizenship. Politics and Agency inFrance,BritainandDenmark. Cambridge University Press.
  • United Nation Development Programme. 2000. Women's Political Participation and Good Governance: 21st Century Challenges. United Nation Development Programme.
  • Inter-Parliamentary Union. 1999a. Women in Politics - World Bibliography. Geneva: Inter-Parliamentary Union.
  • Inter-Parliamentary Union. 1999b. Participation of Women in Public Life. Geneva: Inter-Parliamentary Union.
  • Bacchi, Carol Lee. 1999. Women, Politics and Policy. London: Sage.
  • Bergqvist, Christina et al (eds.). 1999. Equal Democracies? Gender and Politics in the Nordic Countries. Oslo: Scandinavian University Press.
  • Caul, Miki. 1999. "Women's Representation in Parliament: The Role of Political Parties." Party Politics 5, no. 1. pp. 79-98.
  • Craske, Nikki. 1999. Women and Politics inLatin America. Cambridge: Polity Press.
  • Lovenduski, Joni (ed.). 1999. Feminism and Politics. Dartmouth: Ashgate Publishing, Limited.
  • Peters, Anne. 1999. Women, Quotas and Constitutions: A Comparative Study of Affirmative Action for Women in American, German, European Community and International Law. Kluwer Law International: Dordrecht, London, Boston.
  • Reynolds, Andrew. 1999. Women in African Legislatures and Executives: The Slow Climb to Power. Johannesburg: Electoral Institute of South Africa.
  • Squires, Judith. 1999. Gender in Political Theory. Polity Press.
  • Walby, Sylvia (ed.). 1999. New Agendas for Women? Basingstoke: Macmillan.
  • Inter-Parliamentary Union. 1998. Women in Politics - World Bibliography. Geneva: Inter-Parliamentary Union.
  • Dahlerup, Drude. 1998. "Using Quotas to Increase Women's Political Representation." Azza Karam (ed.) Chapter 4. Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers. (
  • Hoecker, B (ed). 1998. Handbuch Politische Partizipation von Frauen in Europa. Opladen: Leske und Budrich.
  • Jaquette, Jane S. And Wolchik, Sharon L. (eds.) 1998. Women and Democracy:Latin Americaand Central andEastern Europe. Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press.
  • Matland, Richard E. 1998a. "Enhancing Women's Political Participation: Legislative Recruitment and Electoral Systems." Azza Karam (ed.) Chapter 3. Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers. (
  • Matland, Richard E. 1998b. "Women's Representation in National Legislatures: Developed and Developing Countries." Legislative Studies Quarterly, 23, no. 1. pp. 109-125.
  • Inter-Parliamentary Union. 1997a. TowardsPartnership Between Men and Women in Politics. Geneva: Inter-Parliamentary Union.
  • Inter-Parliamentary Union. 1997b. Democracy Still in the Making: A World Comparative Study. Geneva: Inter-Parliamentary Union.
  • Lovenduski, Joni. 1997. "Gender Politics: A Breakthrough for Women?" Parliamentary Affairs, vol. 50, (4), pp.708-19.
  • Leijenaar, Monique. 1997. How to Create a Gender Balance in Political Decision-making. European Commission, Directorate-General for Employment, Industrial Relations and Social Affairs, Brussels.
  • Norris, Pippa. 1997a. "Equality strategies and political representation.". pp. 46-59 in Sex Equality Policy in Western Europe, ed. Frances Gardiner. New York: Routledge.
  • Norris, Pippa, (ed.). 1997b. Women, Media, and Politics. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Bacchi, Carol Lee. 1996. Politics of Affirmative Actions. Women, Equality and Category Politics. London: Sage.
  • Lawrence LeDuc, Richard G.Niemi, Pippa Norris (eds.). 1996. Comparing Democracies. Elections and Voting in Global Perspective. SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks: London, New Delhi.
  • Lovenduski, Joni and Pippa Norris (eds.). 1996. Women in Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Squires, Judith. 1996. 'Quotas for Women: Fair Representation?' J. Lovenduksi and P. Norris, (eds.) Women and Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp.73-90.
  • Phillips, Anne. "Quotas for women". 1995. Phillips, Anne. The Politics of Presence. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp.56-83.
  • Hofmann, C. 1994. Issue Brief on Quota Systems for Women's Political Participation. Quezon City, Philippines: Women in Politics Program, Congressional Research and Training Service.
  • Nelson, J. Barbara and Najma Chowdhury.1994. Women and Politics Worldwide. New Heaven and London: Yale Univ. Press.
  • Rule, Wilma and Joseph F. Zimmerman. 1994. Electoral Systems in Comparative Perspective: Their Impact on Women and Minorities. Westport CT: Greenwood Press
  • Funk, Naanette & Magda Mueller (eds.).1993. Gender Politics and Post-Communism. Routledge.
  • Lovenduski, Joni and Pippa Norris (eds.). 1993. Gender and Party Politics. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
  • Phillips, Anne. 1991. Engendering Democracy. Cambridge: Polity Press.
  • Jones, Mark and Patricio Navia. 'Assessing the Effectiveness of Gender Quotas in Open-List Proportional Representation Electoral Systems.'Social Science Quarterly 80, no.2, p. 341.
  • Young, Iris M. 1990. Justice and the Politics of Difference. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Lang, Regina. 1989. Frauenquoten. Der einen Freud, des anderen Leid. Verlag J.H.W.Dietz Nachf.
  • Pateman, Carole. 1989. The Disorder of Women: Democracy, Feminism and Political Theory. Cambridge: Polity.
  • Dahlerup, Drude. 1988. "From a Small to a Large Minority", Scandinavian Political Studies. Vol.11, no.4, pp.275-298.
  • Rule, Wilma. "Electoral Systems, Contextual Factors and Women's Opportunity for Election to Parliament in Twenty-Three Democracies." 1987. Western Political Quarterly, 40(3). pp. 477-498.
  • United Nations, ‘Burundi and Women’s Political Participation – the Role of Onub’,'s%20Political%20Participation.pdf

Other Links

Inter-Parliamentary Union.

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliament in 2015: The year in review”:

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliament: 20 years in review”:

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliaments: World and Regional Averages”:

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliaments: World Classification ”:

Women's Environment and Development Organization,

Online Women in Politics,

Note: The sources and additional reading indicated above are mostly only available in English. We welcome recommendations of additional sources in other languages.



Do you have news concerning gender quotas for promoting
the equal participation and representation of women and men?
Please send them to us so that we can keep the information on this site up to date.


Contact Us