Gender Quotas Database


General Resources for Asia


  • Rai, S.H., et al. 2006. ‘South Asia: gender quotas and the politics of empowerment – a comparative study’, in Dahlerup, D. (ed.) Women, Quotas and Politics, London/New York: Routledge, pp. 222-245.
    United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) 2000. Human Development Report, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Ballington, J. and Dahlerup, D. 2006. ‘Gender quotas in post-conflict states: East Timor, Afghanistan and Iraq’, in Dahlerup, D. (ed.) Women, Quotas and Politics, London/New York: Routledge, pp. 249-258.
  • Abou-Zeid, G. 2006. ‘The Arab region: women’s access to the decision-making process across the Arab Nation’, in Dahlerup, D. (ed.) Women, Quotas and Politics, London/New York: Routledge, pp. 168-193.
  • Office of the Special Adviser on Gender Issues and Advancement of Women (OSAGI) 2004. Faces: Women as Partners in Peace and Security, New York: OSAGI.
  • Whittington, S. ‘UN Goals for Gender Mainstreaming’, paper presented at the conference: Women and Post-War Reconstruction: Strategies for Implementation of Democracy Building Policies, Florida International University, Miami, March 2004.
  • Ottaway, M. 2004. ‘Women’s Rights and Democracy in the Arab World’, Carnegie Papers Middle East Series, no. 42, Washington: Carnegie Endowment for International
  • Khalil, A. 2004. ‘Women Call for Equal Representation’, Women’s E-News, 2 June.
    Online. Available at:
  • United National Development Programme (UNDP) 2003. Arab Human Development
    Report 2003.
  • Reilly, B. 2003. ‘International Electoral Assistance: A Review of Donor Activities and Lessons Learned’, Working Paper 17, The Hague: Netherlands Institute of International Relations ‘Clingendael’.
  • Chinkin, C. ‘Peace Agreements as a Means for Promoting Gender Equality and
    Ensuring Participation of Women’, paper presented at UN Expert Group Meeting, Ottawa, November 2003.
  • Baviskar, B.S. 2002. ‘Including the Excluded, Empowering the Powerless’, Sociological bulletin, 51, 2: 168–74.
  • Rai, S.M. 2002. Gender and the Political Economy of Development, Cambridge: Polity Press.
  • Parpart, J.L., Rai, S.M. and Staudt, K.A. (eds) 2002. Rethinking Empowerment Gender and Development in a Global/Local World, London: Routledge.
  • World Fact Book. 2002.
  • United National Development Programme (UNDP) 2002. Arab Human Development Report: Creating Opportunities of Future Generations.
  • Bayes, Jane H. & Nayereh Tohidi (eds). 2001. Globalization, Gender, and Religion. The Politics of Women's Rights in Catholic and Muslim Contexts. Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Joseph & Susan Slymovics. 2001. Women and Power in the Middle East. Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania.
  • Rai, S.M. (ed.) 2000. International Perspectives on Gender and Democratisation, Basingstoke: Macmillan.
  • Yuval-Davis, N. and Pnina, W. 1999. Women, Citizenship and Difference, London: Zed Books.
  • Kabeer, N. 1999. ‘Resources, Agency, Achievements: Reflections on the Measurement of Women’s Empowerment’, Development and Change, 30: 435–64.
  • Goetz, A. 1997. Getting Institutions Right for Women in Development, London: Zed Books.
  • Lister, R. 1997. Citizenship: Feminist Perspectives, London: Palgrave.
  • Young, M.I. 1997. ‘Unruly Categories: A Critique of Nancy Fraser’s Dual Systems Theory’, New Left Review, 222: 147–60.
  • Coole, D. 1996. ‘Is class a difference that makes a difference?’, Radical Philosophy, issue 77, May/June.
  • Kabeer, N. 1995. ‘Targeting women or transforming institutions? Policy lessons from NGO anti-poverty efforts’, Development and Practice, 5, 2: 108–16.
  • Fraser, N. 1995. ‘From Redistribution to Recognition? Dilemmas of Justice in a ‘Poststructuralist’ Age’, New Left Review, 212: 68–93.
  • Phillips, A. 1995. The Politics of Presence, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Kabeer, N. 1994. Reversed Realities: Gender Hierarchies in Development Thought, London: Verso.
  • Pathak, Z. and Sudarajan, R. 1992. ‘Shahbano’ in J. Butler and J.W. Scott (eds) Feminists Theorize the Political, London: Routledge.
  • Bystendinzky, J.M. (ed.) 1992. Women Transforming Politics: Worldwide Strategies for Empowerment, Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.
  • Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU)
  • Socialist International Women. ‘The Quota System.
  • Online Women in Politics,
  • Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU),
  • UNIFEM East and South East Asia,
  • Arab Election Law,

Other Links

Inter-Parliamentary Union.

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliament in 2015: The year in review”:

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliament: 20 years in review”:

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliaments: World and Regional Averages”:

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliaments: World Classification ”:

Women's Environment and Development Organization,

Online Women in Politics,

Note: The sources and additional reading indicated above are mostly only available in English. We welcome recommendations of additional sources in other languages.



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