Gender Quotas Database


General Resources for Africa


  • Tripp, A. et al. 2006. ‘Sub-Saharan Africa: On the Fast Track to Women’s Political Representation’, in Dahlerup, D. (ed.) Women, Quotas and Politics, London/New York: Routledge, pp. 112-137.
  • Jabre, K. ‘Enhancing the Role of Women in Electoral Processes in Post-conflict Countries’, Inter-Parliamentary Union, paper prepared for Expert Group Meeting on ‘Enhancing Women’s Participation in Electoral Processes in Post-
    Conflict Countries’, Glen Cove, New York, January 2004.
  • Mutume, G. 2004. ‘Women break into African politics: Quota Systems Allow More Women to Gain Elected Office’, Africa Recovery, 18, 1: 4.
  • Lowe-Morna, C. (ed.) 2004. Ringing Up the Changes: Gender in Southern African Politics, Johannesburg: Gender Links.
  • Benyin, C. 2003. ‘Women on War: Give Us 30 Per cent of Parliamentary Seats’, Public Agenda(Accra), 5 September.
  • Lowe-Morna, C. 2003. ‘The quota debate rages on’, Amalungelo: A Bi-Monthly Journal for Gender Justice in Southern Africa, 2: 39–40.
  • Sakho, A. 2002. ‘Les femmes représenteront 30 pour cent des candidates de 13
    partis aux elections locales’, Interpress Service News Agency, 14 April.
  • Diop, A.D. 2002. ‘Les quotas en Africa francophone: Des débuts modestes’, in J. Ballington and M. Protais (eds) Les Femmes au parlement: Au Delà du Nombre, Stockholm: International IDEA, pp. 133–42. Online. Available at:
  • Isa, F. 2001 ‘Al-Mashakalat al-Lati Tawajaha al-Mara al-Sudaniya fi al-Masharaka al-Siyasia’, in H. Abdul Rahman (ed.) Political Participation of Women in North Africa, Cairo: Center of Future African Studies, p. 6.
  • Yoon, Mi Yung. 2001. ‘Democratization and Women's Legislative Representation in Sub-Saharan Africa.’ Democratization. Vol. 8, no. 2: 169-190.
  • Reynolds, Andrew. 1999. Women in African Legislatures and Executives: The Slow Climb to Power. Auckland Park: Electoral Institute of South Africa (occasional paper).
  • Mashingaidze, Dumisani. 1999. ‘A Quota System for Women?’ WomanPlus. 6. No. 3. p. 20.
  • Duri, Perkins F. 1999. ‘Women in the Shadow of Politics.’ WomanPlus6. No. 3. p. 24.
  • Inter-Parliamentary Union. 1997. Democracy Still in the Making: A World Comparative Study. Geneva: Inter-Parliamentary Union.
  • Ondego, O. 1997. ‘Obstacles to women’s political empowerment’, GENDEReview – Kenya’s Women and Development Quarterly, 4, 2: 5–6.
  • Centre for Legislative Development,
  • Socialist International Women. ‘The Quota System’, Eng1.html
  • The Center for Public Education and Information on Polygamy,
  • Women's Environment & Development Organization,
  • Electoral Institute of Southern Africa.
  • Election World,
  • Isis International-Manila,
  • The Netherlands Institute for South Africa,
  • United Nations Economic Commission for Africa,
  • International Foundation for Election Systems,
  • Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU)>.
  • Freedom House.

Other Links

Inter-Parliamentary Union.

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliament in 2015: The year in review”:

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliament: 20 years in review”:

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliaments: World and Regional Averages”:

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliaments: World Classification ”:

Women's Environment and Development Organization,

Online Women in Politics,

Note: The sources and additional reading indicated above are mostly only available in English. We welcome recommendations of additional sources in other languages.



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