Ecuador (Republic of Ecuador) has a Unicameral parliament with legislated quotas for the single/lower house and at the sub-national level. 53 of 137 (39%) seats in the Asamblea Nacional / National Assembly are held by women.
At a glance
Structure of Parliament: Unicameral
Are there legislated quotas...
- For the Single/Lower House? Yes
- For the Sub-National Level? Yes
Are there voluntary quotas...
- Adopted by political parties? No
Is there additional information?...
Last updated: Apr 1, 2022
Asamblea Nacional / National Assembly
|Quota type: Legislated Candidate Quotas||Constitution||According to Article 65 of the 2008 Constitution, ‘the State shall promote equality with respect to the representation of women and men in publicly appointed or elected office, in its executive and decision-making institutions, and political parties and movements. As for candidacies in multi-person elections, their participation shall be respected by rotation of power and sequencing. The State shall adopt affirmative action measures to guarantee the participation of discriminated sectors.’|
|Electoral law||The National Assembly is composed of 137 members, 15 of whom are elected by proportional representation from a unique nationwide constituency. A further 116 are elected from multi-member constituencies and the remaining 6 members are elected from overseas constituencies by majority vote. According to Articles 99 (1) and 160 of the 2009 Electoral Law, in the candidate lists, for the elections through the system of proportional representation, the names of men and women candidates shall alternate. In addition, Article 160 requires that candidate lists for elections to the National Assembly, the Andean and Latin American Parliament, the regional councils, as well as the district, municipal and rural councils, shall be formed with an equal number sequence (woman–man or man–woman) to complete the total number of principal and alternative candidates.|
|Legal sanctions for non-compliance||Electoral law||Article 105 (2) of the electoral law states that the candidate lists will be rejected by the Electoral Commission if they do not comply with the gender parity and alternation provisions of the Constitution and the electoral law.|
|Rank order/placement rules||Electoral law||Alternation between men and women on the candidate lists is required (Articles 99 (1) and 160).|
|Is the provision of direct public funding to political parties related to gender equality among candidates?||No||
There is a general provision for parity, but not an specific rule regarding direct public funding tied to gender equality.
See more in International IDEA's Political Finance database
|Are there provisions for other financial advantages to encourage gender equality in political parties?||No||
See more in International IDEA's Political Finance database
Quota at the Sub-National Level
- Quota type: Legislated Candidate Quotas
|Quota type: Legislated Candidate Quotas||Constitution||‘The State shall promote equality with respect to the representation of women and men in publicly appointed or elected office, in its executive and decision-making institutions, and political parties and movements. As for candidacies in multi-person elections, their participation shall be respected by rotation of power and sequencing. The State shall adopt affirmative action measures to guarantee the participation of discriminated sectors.’ (Article 65)|
|Electoral law||Articles 160 and 163 of the electoral law require that candidate lists for elections to the regional councils, the district, municipal and rural councils, as well as the prefectures, shall be formed with an equal number sequence (woman–man or man–woman) to complete the total number of principal and alternative candidates.|
|Legal sanctions for non-compliance||Electoral law||The candidate lists will be rejected by the Electoral Commission if they do not comply with the gender parity and alternation provisions of the Constitution and the Electoral Law (Article 105 (2)).|
|Rank order/placement rules||Electoral law||Candidate lists shall be formed with an equal number sequence (woman–man or man–woman) to complete the total number of principal and alternative candidates (Articles 160 and 163).|
According to the 2009/2012 Electoral Law, the candidates of the political parties for the elections for the National Assembly, the Andean Parliament, the Latin-American parliament, and the regional and municipal councils will be chosen through internal primary elections in which the principles of parity and alternation will be applied (Article 160). Furthermore, political parties should respect these principles in internal elections for the nomination of candidates and in their internal structures and political functions (Articles 94 and 343).
In 1997 a 20 per cent quota was introduced for the Chamber of Deputies, and the percentage was set to increase by 5 per cent for each election cycle until parity was reached (Cañete 2008). In the 2002 national elections, some parties did not comply with the new electoral law, mostly regarding the rank-order rules. The Supreme Electoral Tribunal did not use its mandate to reject the registration of these lists (Cañete 2008). This system was overturned by the new Constitution and the laws now in effect.
- Constitution of the Republic of Ecuador (rev. 2011) (Spanish version)
- Constitution of the Republic of Ecuador 2008 (rev. 2011) (English version)
- Ley Orgánica Electoral y de Organizaciones Políticas de la República del Ecuador, Código de la Democracia, 2009 [Organic law on elections and political organizations in the Republic of Ecuador, Democracy Code, 2009]
- Cañete, M. F., ‘Las mujeres y el déficit de democracia en los partidos y los movimientos políticos independientes’ [Women and the democratic deficit in parties and independent political movements’], in B. Llanos and K. Sample (eds), Del dicho al hecho: manual de buenas practicas para la participación de mujeres en los partidos políticos latinoamericanos [From words to action: best practices for women’s participation in Latin American political parties] (Stockholm: International IDEA, 2008)
- Llanos, B (2019): “Surcando olas y contra-olas. Una mirada paritaria a los derechos políticos de las mujeres en América Latina”. Atenea, International IDEA, ONU Mujeres, UNDP.
- Gender Equality Observatory for Latin America and the Caribbean: Ecuador (Official Website)
- Peralta Zambrano, A (2005): "Ley de cuotas y participación política de las mujeres en el Ecuador" Revista IIDH Vol.42. Pp: 377-405.
- Htun, Mala N. 2002. ‘Mujeres y poder político en Latinoamérica,’ in International IDEA, Mujeres en el Parlamento. Más allá de los números, Stockholm: International IDEA, pp. 19-44.
- Htun, Mala N. and Jones, M. P. 2002. ‘Engendering the Right to Participate in Decision-Making: Electoral Quotas and Women's Leadership in Latin America.’ Nikki Craske and Maxine Molyneux(ed.) Gender and the Politics of Rights and Democracy in Latin America. New York: Palgrave. pp. 32-56.
- Pacari, N. 2002. ‘La Participación Política de la Mujer Indígena en El Congreso Ecuatoriano’, in M. Méndez-Montalvo and J. Ballington (eds) Mujeres en el Parlamento – Más alla de los números, Stockholm: International IDEA, pp. 45–62.
- Peschard, J. 2002. ‘El sistema de cuotas en América Latina. Panorama general,’ in International IDEA. Mujeres en elParlamento. Más allá de los números, Stockholm: International IDEA, pp. 173-186.
- Jimenez Polanco, J. 2001. ‘La représentation politique des femmes en Amérique Latine: une analyse comparée’ (Women's political representation in Latin America: a comparative analysis). Bérengère Marques-Pereira and Patricio Nolasco (ed.) La représentation politique des femmes en Amérique Latine(Women's political representation in Latin America). Brussels: L'Harmattan. pp. 27-81.
- Women's Leadership Conference of the Americas. 2001. Women and Power in the Americas: A Report Card. Washington: Women's Leadership Conference of the Americas.
- Htun, Mala N. 1998. Women's Political Participation, Representation and Leadership in Latin America. Issue Brief, Women's Leadership Conference of the Americas.
- León, M. 1998. ‘Ecuador: La incidencia de la agenda internacional en la participación femenina y en las políticas para la equidad de género en el Ecuador.’ Silvia Vega Ugalde (ed.). Acceso de las mujeres a la toma de decisiones en los países andinos. Quito: Coalición Política de Mujeres Andinas. pp. 109-145
- Gutierrez, E. 1997. ‘Women-Latam: Andean Women Flex Their Political Muscle.’ Interpress Service, September 23.
- Merizalde, B & Soledad, M. 1997. La participación de la mujer en la política ecuatoriana(The participation of women in Ecuadoran politics). Quito: Editorial Universitaria.
- Inter-Parliamentary Union. 1997a. Men and Women in Politics: Democracy Still in the Making, A World Comparative Study. Geneva: Inter-Parliamentary Union.
- Ecuador Parliament website, http://www.asambleanacional.gob.ec/es