China (People's Republic of China) has a Unicameral parliament with legislated quotas for the single/lower house. 742 of 3,000 (25%) seats in the Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui / National People's Congress are held by women.
At a glance
Structure of Parliament: Unicameral
Are there legislated quotas...
- For the Single/Lower House? Yes
- For the Sub-National Level? No
Are there voluntary quotas...
- Adopted by political parties? No
Is there additional information?...
Last updated: Apr 16, 2019
Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui / National People's Congress
|Quota type: Reserved seats||Constitution|
|Electoral law||According to a decision of the 10th National People’s Congress (NPC) in 2007, ‘among deputies to the 11th National People’s Congress, women shall take up a proportion not less than 22 per cent’ (Article 8). Subsequently, the percentage of female members of the 12th NPC has increased to 23.4%.|
|Legal sanctions for non-compliance||N/A||Not applicable|
|Rank order/placement rules||N/A||Not applicable|
|Is the provision of direct public funding to political parties related to gender equality among candidates?||No data available|
|Are there provisions for other financial advantages to encourage gender equality in political parties?||No data available|
The National People’s Congress (NPC) is elected through a multi-tier system of representation. Deputies (delegates) to the NPC are elected by provincial people’s assemblies, who themselves are elected by lower-level assemblies, all the way down to the lowest level people’s assemblies, which are directly elected by constituents.
Electoral colleges are comprised within 23 provinces, 5 autonomous regions, 4 municipalities directly under the control of the central government and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. Article 6 of the Electoral Law of the NPC and the Local People's Congresses stipulates that ‘among deputies to the National People's Congress and local people's congresses at various levels, there shall be an appropriate number of women deputies, and the proportion thereof shall be raised gradually’.
In addition, Article 11 of the Law on the Protection of Rights and Interests of Women states that ‘Among deputies to the National People's Congress and local people's congresses at various levels, there shall be an appropriate number of women deputies, the state will take measures, gradually raise the proportion of women's deputies.’
- Electoral Law of the National People’s Congress and Local People’s Congresses of the People’s Republic of China;
- Decision of the Fifth Session of the Tenth National People’s Congress on the Number of Deputies to the Eleventh National People’s Congress and on the Election of the Deputies;
- Decision of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress on Amending the Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Protection of Rights and Interests of Women;
- Zheng, Y., Guo, X. and Zhao, L., ‘Women’s Political Participation in China’, East Asian Institute Background Brief no. 453 (22 May 2009)