Gender Quotas Database

Country Data



China (People's Republic of China)

China (People's Republic of China) has a Unicameral parliament with legislated quotas for the single/lower house. 742 of 2,975 (25%) seats in the Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui / National People's Congress are held by women.

At a glance

Structure of Parliament: Unicameral

Are there legislated quotas...

  • For the Single/Lower House? Yes
  • For the Sub-National Level? No

Are there voluntary quotas...

  • Adopted by political parties? No

Is there additional information?...

  • Yes

Last updated: Apr 24, 2022

Single/Lower House

Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui / National People's Congress

Total seats 2,975
Total Women 742
% Women 25%
Election Year 2018
Electoral System No direct elections
Quota Type Reserved seats
Election details IDEA Voter Turnout - IPU Parline
  Legal source Details
Quota type: Reserved seats Constitution  
Electoral law According to a decision of the 10th National People’s Congress (NPC) in 2007, ‘among deputies to the 11th National People’s Congress, women shall take up a proportion not less than 22 per cent’ (Article 8). Subsequently, the percentage of female members of the 12th NPC has increased to 23.4%.
Legal sanctions for non-compliance N/A  
Rank order/placement rules N/A  
Is the provision of direct public funding to political parties related to gender equality among candidates? No data available
Are there provisions for other financial advantages to encourage gender equality in political parties? No data available

Additional Information

The National People’s Congress (NPC) is elected through a multi-tier system of representation. Deputies (delegates) to the NPC are elected by provincial people’s assemblies, who themselves are elected by lower-level assemblies, all the way down to the lowest level people’s assemblies, which are directly elected by constituents.

Electoral colleges are comprised within 23 provinces, 5 autonomous regions, 4 municipalities directly under the control of the central government and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. Article 6 of the Electoral Law of the NPC and the Local People's Congresses stipulates that ‘among deputies to the National People's Congress and local people's congresses at various levels, there shall be an appropriate number of women deputies, and the proportion thereof shall be raised gradually’.

In addition, Article 11 of the Law on the Protection of Rights and Interests of Women states that ‘Among deputies to the National People's Congress and local people's congresses at various levels, there shall be an appropriate number of women deputies, the state will take measures, gradually raise the proportion of women's deputies.’

Additional reading

  • Wang, Q. (2015). In Tailwind, in Headwind: Gender Quotas in China. Indian Journal of Gender Studies, 22(3), 387–407. doi:10.1177/0971521515594277
  • Xiajuan, G. & Lijun, Y. (2016). Changing State-Society Relations in Contemporary China, pp. 249-265 Chapter 12: "Women's Political Participation in China".

Additional reading

Asia | Global

Know about useful additional reading for China? Tell us!



Do you have news concerning gender quotas for promoting
the equal participation and representation of women and men?
Please send them to us so that we can keep the information on this site up to date.


Contact Us

Disclaimer: Maps presented do not imply on the part of the Institute any judgement on the legal status of any territory or the endorsement of such boundaries, nor does the placement or size of any country or territory reflect the political view of International IDEA. Maps are used in order to add visual clarity to data.