Gender Quotas Database

Country Data

EXPLORE QUOTA DATA    

 

Chile (Republic of Chile)

Chile (Republic of Chile) has a Bicameral parliament with the use of voluntary party quotas. 35 of 155 (23%) seats in the Cámara de Diputados / Chamber of Deputies are held by women.

At a glance

Structure of Parliament: Bicameral

Are there legislated quotas...

  • For the Single/Lower House? Yes
  • For the Upper House? Yes
  • For the Sub-National Level? No

Are there voluntary quotas...

  • Adopted by political parties? Yes

Is there additional information?...

  • Yes

Last updated: Apr 16, 2019

Single/Lower House

Cámara de Diputados / Chamber of Deputies

Total seats 155
Total Women 35
% Women 23%
Election Year 2017
Electoral System List PR
Quota Type Legislated Candidate Quotas
Election details IDEA Voter Turnout - IPU Parline
  Legal source Details
Quota type: Legislated Candidate Quotas Constitution  
Electoral law

In 2015, a bill on constitutional reform was passed by the Congress including a gender quota. The quota  will only apply for parliamentary electoral processes during the 2017, 2021, 2025 and 2029 elections (Law 18,700, article 23). "Of the totality of  declarations to deputy or senator declared by the political parties, whether or not they have agreed, neither the male candidates nor the female candidates may exceed sixty percent of the respective total, this percentage shall be obligatory and shall be calculated independently of the nomination form of the candidacies. " (Law 18,700, article 3, amended by Law 20,840 article 1).

Legal sanctions for non-compliance Yes

If a party fails to comply to the gender quota by submitting candidacy lists with more than 60 per cent of the respective total, all the candidacies to deputy or senate presented by the party will be rejected (Law 18,700, article 3).

Rank order/placement rules No data available
Is the provision of direct public funding to political parties related to gender equality among candidates? Yes

The law indicates that political parties are eligible to receive an additional amount of state subsidies in relation to the number of women elected in parliament.


See more in International IDEA's Political Finance database
Are there provisions for other financial advantages to encourage gender equality in political parties? Yes, funds earmarked for gender activities Yes, other  
See more in International IDEA's Political Finance database

Upper House

Senado / Senate

Total seats 50
Total Women 10
% Women 20%
Election Year 2017
Electoral System List PR
Quota Type Legislated Candidate Quotas>
Election details IPU Parline
  Legal source Details
Quota type: Legislated Candidate Quotas Electoral law

In 2015, a bill on constitutional reform was passed by the Congress including a gender quota. The quota  will only apply for parliamentary electoral processes during the 2017, 2021, 2025 and 2029 elections (Law 18,700, article 23). "Of the totality of  declarations to deputy or senator declared by the political parties, whether or not they have agreed, neither the male candidates nor the female candidates may exceed sixty percent of the respective total, this percentage shall be obligatory and shall be calculated independently of the nomination form of the candidacies. " (Law 18,700, article 3, amended by Law 20,840 article 1).

Legal sanctions for non-compliance Yes

If a party fails to comply to the gender quota by submitting candidacy lists with more than 60 per cent of the respective total, all the candidacies to deputy or senate presented by the party will be rejected (Law 18,700, article 3).

Rank order/placement rules No data available

Voluntary Political Party Quotas*

Party Official name Details, Quota provisions
Party for Democracy Partido por la Democracia [PPD] Neither men nor women should be represented on electoral lists by more than 60 percent (Party statutes, article 7). However, this provision has been weakly enforced (Ríos Tobar, et al. 2008, p. 18, 24).
Socialist Party of Chile Partido Socialista de Chile [PS] Since 2003, the quota has been twofold: Neither of the sexes shall be represented on electoral lists by more than 60 percent; neither sex shall occupy more than 70 percent of the seats in parliament (Party statutes, Article 40). However, this provision has not been adhered to in practice (Ríos Tobar, et al. 2008, p. 18, 24).
Christian Democratic Party Partido Demócrata Cristiano [PDC] According to article 105 of the party statutes, PDC has a 20 percent quota for women on electoral lists. This provision was adopted in 1996 but has been weakly enforced (Ríos Tobar, et al. 2008, p. 18, 24).

* Only political parties represented in parliament are included. When a country has legislated quotas in place, only political parties that have voluntary quotas that exceed the percentage/number of the national quota legislation are presented in this table.

Additional Information

On January 20, 2015, Chile’s Congress approved a bill significantly reforming the national electoral system. There is now a provision that requires all political parties competing in congressional elections to ensure that no more than 60 percent of candidates on the ballot in  every district are of the same sex, which means at least 40 percent of candidates on party ballots must be women. This will only apply to elections between 2017 and 2029.

 

The former Chilean president, Michelle Bachelet, introduced a Bill in the Lower House called "Participacion Poli­tica Equilibrada de Hombres y Mujeres" (Equal Political Participation of Men and Women), commonly known as "Ley de Cuotas" (Quota Law), in October 2007.

The Bill (Mensaje 860-355/Boletin 5553-06) aims, on the one hand, to establish rules to ensure a balanced participation of men and women in the access and exercise of internal positions of political parties and of public responsibilities, and on the other hand, provides more fiscal support to female candidates who are elected, as well as, a larger amount of resources, than what applies according to law, to the political parties that shall include a greater number of women in their lists of candidates.

The Bill aims to facilitate access of women to positions of political representation by setting that either gender (male or female) may not exceed 70% of the internal positions of the political parties, of the lists of candidates and of the municipal and parliamentary elections.

This would entail the modification of "Ley de Partidos Poli­ticos" (Law on Political Parties), "Ley de Votaciones Populares y Escrutinios" (Law on Popular Voting and Elections), "Ley Organica de Municipalidades" (Organic Law of Municipalities) and "Ley de Gasto Electoral" (Law on Electoral Expenditure).

The issue has been discussed in Chile many times before this Bill, but the motions were filed. So far the Bill has not made progress in Parliament.

 

 

Sources

LEGAL SOURCES

OTHER SOURCES

Additional reading

  • Marcela Ríos Tobar (ed), Mujer y política. El impacto de las cuotas de género en América Latina. IDEA & Flasco Chile 2008.

  • Nélida Archenti & María Inés Tula (eds), Mujeres y política en América Latina. Systemas electorales y cuotas de género. Heliasta 2008.

  • Htun, Mala N. 2002. Women in Political Power in Latin America. Manuscript.
  • Peschard, Jacqueline. 2002. ‘El sistema de cuotas en América Latina. Panorama general,’ in International IDEA. Mujeres en el Parlamento. Más allá de los números, Stockholm: International IDEA, pp. 173-186.
  • Franceschet, S. 2001. ‘ Women in Politics in Post-Transitional Democracies: The Chilean Case’, International Feminist Journal of Politics, vol.3, no.2, pp.207-236.
  • Gonzalez, Gustavo. 2001. ‘Politics-Chile: Women Notably Absent from Parliamentary Ballots.’ Interpress Service, November 21.
  • Jimenez Polanco, Jacqueline. 2001. ‘La représentation politique des femmes en Amérique Latine: une analyse comparée’ (Women's political representation in Latin America: a comparative analysis). Bérengère Marques-Pereira and Patricio Nolasco (ed.) La représentation politique des femmes en Amérique Latine(Women's political representation in Latin America). Brussels: L'Harmattan. pp. 27-81.
  • Nunez Villaroel, Sonia. 2001. ‘La représentation politique des femmes au Chili.’ Bérengère Marques-Pereira and Patricio Nolasco (eds.) La représentation politique des femmes en Amérique Latine, Brussels: L'Harmattan. pp. 111-139.
  • Inter-Parliamentary Union. 1999a. Participation of Women in Political Life: An assessment of developments in national parliaments, political parties, governments and the Inter-Parliamentary Union, five years after the Fourth World Conference on Women. Geneva: Inter-Parliamentary Union.
  • Moltedo, Cecilia. 1998. Experiencias de participación de las mujeres chilenas en los partidos políticos. Santiago: Instituto de la Mujer.
  • Htun, Mala N. 1998. Women's Political Participation, Representation and Leadership in Latin America. Issue Brief, Women's Leadership Conference of the Americas.
  • Valenzuela, María Elena. 1998. ‘ Women and the Democratization Process in Chile’. Jaquette, Jane and Wolchik, Sharon (eds.) Women and Democracy. Latin America and Central and Eastern Europe. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Muñoz D'Albora, Adriana and Scarlett Wojciechowski Levine. 1996. La importancia de una ley de cuotas en Chile. Santiago: Fundación IDEAS.
  • Mufioz, A. et al. 1996. ‘Importancia de una Ley de Cuotas en Chile.’ In Mujer y Ciudadanía. Santiago: Fundación IDEAS.
  • D’Albora, A. and Levine, S. 1996. Importancia de una ley de cuotas en Chile, Mujer &
    Ciudadanía, Santiago: IDEAS Fundación.
  • Chile Parliament website, http://congreso.cl/

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