Gender Quotas Database

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Albania (Republic of Albania)

Albania (Republic of Albania) has a Unicameral parliament with legislated quotas for the single/lower house and at the sub-national level. 41 of 140 (29%) seats in the Kuvendi / Assembly are held by women.

At a glance

Structure of Parliament: Unicameral

Are there legislated quotas...

  • For the Single/Lower House? Yes
  • For the Sub-National Level? Yes

Are there voluntary quotas...

  • Adopted by political parties?

Is there additional information?...

  • Yes

Last updated: Apr 16, 2019

Single/Lower House

Kuvendi / Assembly

Total seats 140
Total Women 41
% Women 29%
Election Year 2017
Electoral System List PR
Quota Type Legislated Candidate Quotas
Election details IDEA Voter Turnout - IPU Parline
  Legal source Details
Quota type: Legislated Candidate Quotas Constitution  
Electoral law

“For each electoral zone, at least 30% of the multi-member list and/or one of the first three names on the multi-member list must be from each gender’ (Article 67 (6), Electoral Code 2015).

Legal sanctions for non-compliance Electoral law

In case of non-compliance with the gender quota provisions, the Central Election Commission (CEC) shall impose a fine of ALL 1,000,000 (approximately €7120). In addition, the CEC shall replace each candidate with the next candidate in the list belonging to the least represented gender, until the gender quota is reached (Article 175, Electoral Code 2015).

Rank order/placement rules Electoral law

‘For each electoral zone, at least 30% of the multi-member list and/or one of the first three names on the multi-member list must be from each gender’ (Article 67 (6), Electoral Code 2015).

Is the provision of direct public funding to political parties related to gender equality among candidates? Yes

30% of candidates must be women in all elections. Failure to comply is punishable by fines, which are taken from each party's respective public funding.


See more in International IDEA's Political Finance database
Are there provisions for other financial advantages to encourage gender equality in political parties? No

NA


See more in International IDEA's Political Finance database

Quota at the Sub-National Level

  • Quota type: Legislated Candidate Quotas
  Legal source Details
Quota type: Legislated Candidate Quotas Constitution  
Electoral law

'For elections for local government bodies, for each municipal council, one in every two consecutive names in ranking shall belong to the same gender. The subject submitting the list declares the seats, according to the gender quota' (Article 67 (6), Electoral Code 2015). 

Legal sanctions for non-compliance Electoral law

In case of non-compliance with the gender quota provisions, the CEC shall impose a fine of ALL 50,000 (approximately €357). In addition, the CEC shall replace each candidate with the next candidates in the list belonging to the least represented gender, until the gender quota is reached (Article 175, Electoral Code 2015).

Rank order/placement rules Electoral law

'For elections for local government bodies, for each municipal council, one in every two consecutive names in ranking shall belong to the same gender. The subject submitting the list declares the seats, according to the gender quota' (Article 67 (6), Electoral Code 2015). 

Additional Information

In November 2008, Albania's electoral system was reformed, introducing list proportional representation system in place of the previously used mixed member proportional representation system. Under the new system, all 140 members of parliament are elected through a proportional representation system in 12 constituencies corresponding to the 12 administrative regions. The threshold to win parliamentary representation is 3 per cent for political parties and 5 per cent for the pre-election coalitions.

 

In the Election of 2017 in Albania, "[w]omen were active but underrepresented in the campaign. Several events specifically targeted women voters. However, the largest political parties did not always respect the gender quota in their candidate lists and women candidates received little media attention. While some 40 per cent of candidates were women, they received only 26 per cent of seats in the new parliament. Women were also underrepresented in the election administration, including in decision-making positions." (OSCE: 2017: 2). 

Sources

LEGAL SOURCES:

OTHER SOURCES:

Additional reading

  • Antic, M.G and Lokar, S. 2006. 'The Balkans: from total rejection to gradual acceptance of gender quotas', in Dahlerup, D. (ed.) Women, Quotas and Politics, London/New York: Routledge, pp. 138-167.
  • Stability Pact Gender Task Force (SPGTF). 2002. ‘Building National Gender Equality Mechanisms in South East Europe – Women's Use of the State.’
  • Bulgarian Gender Research Foundation. 2002. ‘A Compilation of NGO Report from Balkan Countries: Albania.’ Implementation of the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). pp.24-53
  • Woodward, Alison . 2001. ‘Women Are Doing It – Building a Gender Balanced Democracy Using Sticks, Carrots and Kisses'. Stability Pact Gender Task Force Regional Meeting, Slovenia (SPGTF).
  • International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights. 2000. Report: Women 2000.
  • Albanian Parliament website, http://www.parlament.al/

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