Gender Quotas Database

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Zimbabwe (Zimbabwe)

Zimbabwe (Zimbabwe) has a Bicameral parliament with the use of voluntary party quotas. 85 of 270 (31%) seats in the National Assembly are held by women.

At a glance

Structure of Parliament: Bicameral

Are there legislated quotas...

  • For the Single/Lower House? Yes
  • For the Upper House? Yes
  • For the Sub-National Level? Yes

Are there voluntary quotas...

  • Adopted by political parties? Yes

Is there additional information?...

  • Yes

Last updated: Sep 26, 2018

Single/Lower House

National Assembly

Total seats 270
Total Women 85
% Women 31%
Election Year 2018
Electoral System Parallel
Quota Type Reserved seats
Election details IDEA Voter Turnout - IPU Parline
  Legal source Details
Quota type: Reserved seats Constitution The new Constitution of Zimbabwe adopted in May 2013 provides the following system of reserved seats for women: ‘The National Assembly consists of 210 members elected by secret ballot from the 210 constituencies into which Zimbabwe is divided and for the life of the first two Parliaments after the effective date, additional sixty women members, six from each of the provinces into which Zimbabwe is divided, elected through a system of proportional representation based on the votes cast for candidates representing political parties in a general election for constituency members in the provinces’ (Constitution, 2013, Part 4, Article 124). This new addition will increase the size of Zimbabwe’s parliament from 210 to 270 members.
Electoral law  
Legal sanctions for non-compliance N/A Not applicable
Rank order/placement rules N/A Not applicable
Is the provision of direct public funding to political parties related to gender equality among candidates? No  
See more in International IDEA's Political Finance database
Are there provisions for other financial advantages to encourage gender equality in political parties? No  
See more in International IDEA's Political Finance database

Upper House

Senate

Total seats 80
Total Women 35
% Women 44%
Election Year 2018
Electoral System List proportional representation
Quota Type Legislated Candidate Quotas>
Election details IPU Parline
  Legal source Details
Quota type: Legislated Candidate Quotas Constitution The new constitution of Zimbabwe adopted in 2013 provides that out of the total 80 senator, 60 senators (6 from each of the 10 provinces) are elected through a proportional representation system “in which male and female candidates are listed alternatively, every list being headed by a female candidate”(Constitution, 2013, Part 3, Article 120 (1) (2).
Electoral law  
Legal sanctions for non-compliance No None
Rank order/placement rules Constitution As provided in the new Consitution, 60 senators (6 from each of the 10 provinces) are elected through a proportional representation system “in which male and female candidates are listed alternatively, every list being headed by a female candidate”(Constitution, 2013, Part 3, Article 120 (1) (2).

Quota at the Sub-National Level

  • Quota type: Legislated Candidate Quotas
  Legal source Details
Quota type: Legislated Candidate Quotas Constitution In line with the new Constitution, in provincial councils in which 10 members are ordinarily elected through a proportional representation system within a province, ‘male and female candidates are listed alternatively, every list being headed by a female candidate’ (Part 3, Article 268 (1 & 3)).
Electoral law  
Legal sanctions for non-compliance No None
Rank order/placement rules Constitution In line with the new Consitution, Provincial Councils in which 10 members are ordinarily elected through proportional representation system within a province, ”male and female candidates are listed alternatively, every list being headed by a female candidate” (Constitution, 2013, Part 3, Article 268 (1) and (3).

Voluntary Political Party Quotas*

Party Official name Details, Quota provisions
Zimbabwe African National Union Patriotic Front [ZANU-PF] ZANU-PF is committed to ensure that at least one-third of all candidates are female. However, this quota has not been systematically applied.
Movement for democratic change AM [MDC-AM] -

* Only political parties represented in parliament are included. When a country has legislated quotas in place, only political parties that have voluntary quotas that exceed the percentage/number of the national quota legislation are presented in this table.

Additional Information

The new system of reserved seats for women in the National Assembly, and of gender parity in candidate lists for Senate and provincial elections, promises to be a breakthrough for increasing the overall number of women in politics in Zimbabwe. Nevertheless, the text of the 2013 Constitution does not provide for any sanction with regard to parties found to be in non-compliance with the section of the Constitution requiring gender parity in candidate lists for the Senate and provincial councils. It remains to be seen if the Election Commission of Zimbabwe will disqualify such lists from the contest. As defined in the Constitution, the reserved seats for the National Assembly will only apply to the two subsequent parliaments elected after 2013.

 

The constitutional gender quota in Zimbabwe was legislated in 2013 and expires 2023. "There is hope that the proportional representation can be reclaimed if revisited in order to increase its lifespan and make it a permanent provision before the next elections in 2023." (Hamandishe, 2018). 

Sources

LEGAL SOURCES:

 

OTHER SOURCES:

 

 

 

 

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