Gender Quotas Database

Country Data



Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela)

Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela) has a Unicameral parliament with legislated quotas for the single/lower house. 37 of 167 (22%) seats in the Asamblea Nacional / National Assembly are held by women.

At a glance

Structure of Parliament: Unicameral

Are there legislated quotas...

  • For the Single/Lower House? Yes
  • For the Sub-National Level? No

Are there voluntary quotas...

  • Adopted by political parties? No

Is there additional information?...

  • Yes

Last updated: Apr 26, 2021

Single/Lower House

Asamblea Nacional / National Assembly

Total seats 167
Total Women 37
% Women 22%
Election Year 2015
Electoral System Parallel
Quota Type Legislated Candidate Quotas
Election details IDEA Voter Turnout - IPU Parline
  Legal source Details
Quota type: Legislated Candidate Quotas Constitution  
Electoral law

The list of both titular and substitute candidates under both systems (majority and proportional representation) must meet a 50-per cent quota with a zebra-system (alternation between men and women). In cases where a party cannot ensure parity, the proportion of its candidates of either sex cannot be lower than 40% or higher than 60% (article 3, resolución Nº 150625-147 del Consejo Nacional Electoral).

Legal sanctions for non-compliance No data available
Rank order/placement rules No data available
Is the provision of direct public funding to political parties related to gender equality among candidates? No

There is no regulation or reports in this regard.

See more in International IDEA's Political Finance database
Are there provisions for other financial advantages to encourage gender equality in political parties? No

There is no regulation or reports in this regard

See more in International IDEA's Political Finance database

Additional Information

In 1997 a 30% quota law was adopted for both the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. The quota applied only to the 'closed lists' and not to constituency elections. It did not specify where women should be placed on the list. The law only applied to the 1998 election, and women's representation increased from 6 to 12 percent. In 2000 the law was declared unconstitutional, and in the next election women's representation dropped to 9.7%.

In April 2004 the National Electoral Board (Consejo Nacional Electoral) passed a resolution to increase women's opportunity to actively participate in politics. The electoral gazette (2005) of the Republic of Venezuela recommends the parties to ensure female representation on the electoral lists at all levels. Furthermore, the EMB has the right to ensure that this recommendation is followed by the parties and will publicly publish the list of parties not fulfilling the recommendation.

Additional reading

  • Htun, Mala N. 2002. ‘Mujeres y poder político en Latinoamérica,’ in International IDEA, Mujeres en el Parlamento. Más allá de los números, Stockholm: International IDEA, pp. 19-44.
  • Htun, Mala N. and Mark P. Jones. 2002. ‘Engendering the Right to Participate in Decision-Making: Electoral Quotas and Women's Leadership in Latin America.’ Nikki Craske and Maxine Molyneux(ed.) Gender and the Politics of Rights and Democracy in Latin America. New York: Palgrave. pp. 32-56.
  • Peschard, Jacqueline. 2002. ‘El sistema de cuotas en América Latina. Panorama general,’ in International IDEA. Mujeres en el Parlamento. Más allá de los números, Stockholm: International IDEA, pp. 173-186.
  • Jimenez Polanco, Jacqueline. 2001. ‘La représentation politique des femmes en Amérique Latine: une analyse comparée’ (Women's political representation in Latin America: a comparative analysis). Bérengère Marques-Pereira and Patricio Nolasco (ed.) La représentation politique des femmes en Amérique Latine(Women's political representation in Latin America). Brussels: L'Harmattan. pp. 27-81.
  • Women's Leadership Conference of the Americas. 2001. Women and Power in the Americas: A Report Card. Washington: Women's Leadership Conference of the Americas.
  • Castillo, Adícea and Nora Castañeda. 1998. ‘Venezuela: Informe Nacional de Venezuela sobre participación política de las mujeres y su acceso a la toma de decisiones.’ Silvia Vega Ugalde (ed.) Acceso de las mujeres a la toma de decisiones en los países andinos. Quito: Coalición Política de Mujeres Andinas. pp. 49-77.
  • Htun, Mala N. 1998. Women's Political Participation, Representation and Leadership in Latin America. Issue Brief, Women's Leadership Conference of the Americas.
  • Gutierrez, Estrella. 1997. ‘Women-Latam: Andean Women Flex Their Political Muscle.’ Interpress Service, September 23.
  • Inter-Parliamentary Union. 1997b. Towards Partnership Between Men and Women in Politics. Geneva: Inter-Parliamentary Union.
  • Venezuela Parliament website,

Additional reading

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