Gender Quotas Database

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Turkey (Republic of Turkey)

Turkey (Republic of Turkey) has a Unicameral parliament with the use of voluntary party quotas. 101 of 582 (17%) seats in the Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi (T.B.M.M) / Grand National Assembly of Turkey are held by women.

At a glance

Structure of Parliament: Unicameral

Are there legislated quotas...

  • For the Single/Lower House? No
  • For the Sub-National Level? No

Are there voluntary quotas...

  • Adopted by political parties? Yes

Is there additional information?...

  • Yes

Last updated: Sep 13, 2022

Single/Lower House

Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi (T.B.M.M) / Grand National Assembly of Turkey

Total seats 582
Total Women 101
% Women 17%
Election Year 2018
Electoral System List PR
Quota Type No legislated
Election details IDEA Voter Turnout - IPU Parline

Voluntary Political Party Quotas*

Party Official name Details, Quota provisions
People´s Democracy Party Halklarin Demokratik Partisi [HDP] The People's Democracy Party (HDP) has a gender quota of 50%. "We’re nominating woman candidates from the first spots for each and every local assembly elections across Turkey. We’re enacting the 'zipper system'. As a result, HDP has nominated 39 woman co-chairs for the 39 provinces of Istanbul and a total of 333 women to run for local assemblies." (HDP Official Website). 
Homeland Party Memleket Partisi [MP] The nomination of candidates is made on the basis of the zipper between genders, if there are sufficient applications from both genders. The equal representation zipper system involves sequencing between the sexes. According to the applications made, the number of applications and the results of the pre-selection, the candidate lists are given their final form by sorting in the form of a woman, a man or a man and a woman. In which constituency The Party Assembly decides with which gender the ranking will start (MP Statutes, art. 64.6).

* Only political parties represented in parliament are included. When a country has legislated quotas in place, only political parties that have voluntary quotas that exceed the percentage/number of the national quota legislation are presented in this table.

Additional Information

In 1999 the Republican People’s Party (CHP) adopted a twenty five percent (25%) quota for its candidate list and its internal structures, with the exception of the party’s highest decision making organ called “Party Central Executive Committee”. In March 2012, CHP increased the quota to thirty three percent (33%) and also applied the quota to its candidate lists for the national and the sub-national elections. However, these voluntary candidate quotas concern only 15% of the total number of candidates on the candidate list which are chosen by the party’s central committee and not the entire lists. The rest 85% of candidates on the list is filled through primary elections held in districts.

 
Historically the first political party which adopted voluntarily gender quotas back in 1994 was a small socialist party called Birleşik Sosyalist Parti (United Socialist Party) which became the Özgürlük ve Demokrasi Partisi (ÖDP, Freedom and Democracy Party) in 1996.
 

Sources

 

 

Additional reading

  • Yildirim, K. & Kocapinar, G. (2019) Untangling the gender gap: nomination and representativeness in Turkish local elections, Turkish Studies, 20:2, 222-248, DOI: 10.1080/14683849.2018.1553621
  • Bektas, E., & Issever-Ekinci, E. (2019). Who Represents Women in Turkey? An Analysis of Gender Difference in Private Bill Sponsorship in the 2011–15 Turkish Parliament. Politics & Gender, 15(4), 851-881. doi:10.1017/S1743923X18000363

Additional reading

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