Gender Quotas Database

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Eswatini (Kingdom of Eswatini )

Eswatini (Kingdom of Eswatini ) has a Bicameral parliament with legislated quotas for the single/lower house and upper house. 9 of 74 (12%) seats in the House of Assembly are held by women.

At a glance

Structure of Parliament: Bicameral

Are there legislated quotas...

  • For the Single/Lower House? Yes
  • For the Upper House? Yes
  • For the Sub-National Level?

Are there voluntary quotas...

  • Adopted by political parties? No

Is there additional information?...

  • Yes

Last updated: Mar 3, 2022

Single/Lower House

House of Assembly

Total seats 74
Total Women 9
% Women 12%
Election Year 2018
Electoral System FPTP
Quota Type Reserved seats
Election details IDEA Voter Turnout - IPU Parline
  Legal source Details
Quota type: Reserved seats Constitution

The Constitution requires that women should constitute 30% of the Parliament: ‘[T]he House of Assembly shall consist of not more than seventy-six members [including] four female members specially elected from the four Regions’ (Constitution 2005, Art. 95, para. 1c). ‘The nominated members of the House shall be appointed by the King […] so that at least half of them are female’ (Constitution 2005, Art. 95, para. 2a).

‘Where at the first meeting of the House after any general election it appears that female members of Parliament will not constitute at least thirty per cent of the total membership of Parliament, then, and only then, the provisions of this section shall apply. […] For the purposes of this section, the House shall form itself into an electoral college and elect not more than four women on a regional basis to the House in accordance with the provisions of section 95(3).’ (Constitution 2005, Art. 86, para. 1, 2)

Legal sanctions for non-compliance N/A Not applicable
Rank order/placement rules N/A Not applicable
Is the provision of direct public funding to political parties related to gender equality among candidates? No data  
See more in International IDEA's Political Finance database
Are there provisions for other financial advantages to encourage gender equality in political parties? No data  
See more in International IDEA's Political Finance database

Upper House

Senate

Total seats 30
Total Women 12
% Women 40%
Election Year 2018
Electoral System Indirectly elected and appointed
Quota Type Reserved seats>
Election details IPU Parline
  Legal source Details
Quota type: Reserved seats Constitution ‘Ten Senators, at least half of whom shall be female, shall be elected by the members of the House in such manner as may be prescribed by or under any law at their first meeting so as to represent a cross-section of the Swazi society. […] Twenty Senators, at least eight of whom shall be female, shall be appointed by the King acting in his discretion after consultation with such bodies as the King may deem appropriate.’ (Constitution 2005, Art. 94, par 2, 3)
Legal sanctions for non-compliance N/A Not applicable
Rank order/placement rules N/A Not applicable

Additional Information

Contrary to the requirement of Article 86 of the Constitution that women constitute 30 per cent of the Parliament, the composition of the parliament has not complied with this principle. Implementation of the constitutional provision requiring that women constitute 30 per cent of the parliament has not been consistent, in large part due to the lack of an adequate legal framework for elections guaranteeing the implementation of this principle (Gender Links 2012).

Sources

LEGAL SOURCES:

OTHER SOURCES:

 

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