Romania (Romania) has a Bicameral parliament with the use of voluntary party quotas. 68 of 329 (21%) seats in the Camera Deputatilor / Chamber of Deputies are held by women.
At a glance
Structure of Parliament: Bicameral
Are there legislated quotas...
- For the Single/Lower House? No
- For the Upper House?
- For the Sub-National Level? No
Are there voluntary quotas...
- Adopted by political parties? Yes
Is there additional information?...
Last updated: Nov 9, 2018
Voluntary Political Party Quotas*
|Party||Official name||Details, Quota provisions|
|Social Democratic Party of Romania||Partidul Social Democrat Romania [PSDR]||The PSDR had a 25 percent quota for women on party lists. The party is now, since 2001, a member of the Partidul Social Democrat (PSD), the Social Democratic Party.|
|Democratic Party||Partidul Democrat [PD]||The Democratic Party has adopted a 30 percent quota.|
|Social Democratic Party||Partidul Social Democrat [PSD]||In 2001 PSDR (Romanian Social Democratic Party) and PDSR (Socialist Democratic Party of Romania) merged into a new political party; PSD. Prior to the 2004 election PSD adopted a 30 percent gender quota.|
* Only political parties represented in parliament are included. When a country has legislated quotas in place, only political parties that have voluntary quotas that exceed the percentage/number of the national quota legislation are presented in this table.
In 2008, Romania's electoral system was reformed, introducing a Mixed Member Proportional(MMP) representation system over the past List Proportional Representation System. Under the new system, a candidate who obtains over 50% in any 315 single-member constituencies wins a seat. The unelected seats are then allocated among the political parties in proportion of their share of the votes obtained nationally. Currently, there are additional 18 members representing ethnic minorities and one 'overhang seat' (which parties receive if they win more constituency seats than their share of votes). 5% is the threshold for parties to win parliamentary representation.
In 2004 a new electoral law was adopted; candidate lists for parliamentary elections must include both male and female candidates. No specified percentage.
The Democratic Party had proposed introducing quotas for all parties, but this initiative was rejected by the Chamber of Deputies. (IPU 1999a)
- Women's Political Participation and Electoral Quotas in Romania — Dr. Anca Turcu, Department of Political Science, Iowa State University, November 2009.
- Inter-Parliamentary Union. 1999. Participation of Women in Political Life: An assessment of developments in national parliaments, political parties, governments and the Inter-Parliamentary Union, five years after the Fourth World Conference on Women. Geneva: Inter-Parliamentary Union.
- Fischer, Mary Ellen. 1998. ‘From Tradition and Ideology to Elections and Competition: The Changing Status of Women in Romanian Politics.’ in Armonk: M. E. Sharpe (ed.). Women in the Politics of Post communist Eastern Europe. Marilyn Rueschmeyer Inc. pp. 168-195.
- Inter-Parliamentary Union. 1997. Men and Women in Politics: Democracy Still in the Making: A World Comparative Study. Geneva: Inter-Parliamentary Union.
- Fischer, Mary Ellen. 1985. ‘Women in Romanian Politics: Elena Ceauşescu, Pronatalism, and the Promotion of Women.’ Sharon L. Wolchik and Alfred G. Meyer (eds). Women, State, and Party in Eastern Europe. Durham: Duke University Press. pp. 121-137.
- Romanian Parliament website, http://www.cdep.ro/