Gender Quotas Database

Country Data

EXPLORE QUOTA DATA    

 

Peru (Republic of Peru)

Peru (Republic of Peru) has a Unicameral parliament with legislated quotas for the single/lower house and at the sub-national level. 52 of 130 (40%) seats in the Congreso de la República / Congress of the Republic are held by women.

At a glance

Structure of Parliament: Unicameral

Are there legislated quotas...

  • For the Single/Lower House? Yes
  • For the Sub-National Level? Yes

Are there voluntary quotas...

  • Adopted by political parties? No

Is there additional information?...

  • Yes

Last updated: Sep 3, 2021

Single/Lower House

Congreso de la República / Congress of the Republic

Total seats 130
Total Women 52
% Women 40%
Election Year 2021
Electoral System List PR
Quota Type Legislated Candidate Quotas
Election details IDEA Voter Turnout - IPU Parline
  Legal source Details
Quota type: Legislated Candidate Quotas Constitution  
Electoral law

Article 116 of Law 26859 establishes that the candidates' lists for the seats in the Congress must contain at least 40% of men or women candidates  They should be organized following the order: 1 woman, 1 man. The resulting list will be organized following the result and respecting the 40% quota.

The quota will be increasing to 45% for the Elections in 2026 and 50% for the Elections in 2031.

Legal sanctions for non-compliance Electoral law If the candidate lists do not abide by the gender quota requirements, they shall not be admitted by the electoral authority (Electoral law, Article 119).
Rank order/placement rules Yes

Article 116 of the Electoral Law 26859 establishes that the establishment of the lists must follow the order: 1 woman, 1 man. The resulting list will be organized following the result and respecting the 40% quota.

Is the provision of direct public funding to political parties related to gender equality among candidates? No  
See more in International IDEA's Political Finance database
Are there provisions for other financial advantages to encourage gender equality in political parties? No  
See more in International IDEA's Political Finance database

Quota at the Sub-National Level

  • Quota type: Legislated Candidate Quotas
  Legal source Details
Quota type: Legislated Candidate Quotas Constitution  
Electoral law The candidate lists for the seats in municipal and regional councils must include at least 30% women candidates. If after the application of the 30% quota the result is a number containing a fraction, it is raised to the next higher integer. For example, in a candidate list with 5 names at least 2 must be women’s names (Law No. 26864 regulating Municipal Elections, Article 10 (3), Law No. 27683 regulating Regional Elections, Article 12 (1) and Law No. 28094 regulating Political Parties, Article 26).
Legal sanctions for non-compliance Electoral law If a candidate list does not comply with the gender quota the political party will have 2 business days to correct the list and submit it again to the commission. If after that period the candidate list still fails to meet the gender quota, the list will not be accepted (Municipal Electoral law, Article 10 (2)).
Rank order/placement rules Electoral law None

Additional Information

Gender quotas have been incorporated in Peru’s national electoral legislation since 1997. The 2000 national election was conducted with one nation-wide constituency, and the 25 per cent quota provision was almost met (21.7 per cent of candidates elected were women, up from 10.8 per cent in the 1995 election). However, in the 2001 national election, in which the country was divided into electoral districts, the number of women elected dropped to 18.3 per cent. In the 2006 election women's representation increased, and the new quota provision of 30 per cent was almost met. In 2019, a new legislation has established that, for the General Elections of 2021, the quota will be increased to 40%, increasing a 5% for the following elections until parity will be reached: in 2026 (45%) and in 2031 (50%)

Sources

LEGAL SOURCES:

OTHER SOURCES:

Additional reading

  • Gender Equality Observatory for Latin America and the Caribbean: Peru (Official Website)
  • Schmidt, G and Araújo, C. ‘The Devil’s in the Details: Open List Voting and Gender Quotas in Brazil and Peru’, paper presented at the XXV International Congress of Latin American Studies Association, Las Vegas, October 2004.
  • Schmidt, G. 2003. ‘Unanticipated Successes: Lessons from Peru’s Experience with Gender Quotas in Majoritarian Closed List and Open List PR Systems’, in International IDEA The Implementation of Quotas: Latin American Experiences, Quota Workshop Report Series no. 2, Stockholm: International IDEA, pp. 120–33.
  • Schmidt, Gregory. 2003a. Cuotas efectivas, Magnitud Relativa del Partido y el xito de las Candidatas Mujeres: Una Evaluacin Comparativa de las Elecciones Municipales Peruanas. Lima: Manuela Ramos.
  • Schmidt, Gregory. 2003b. Las Mujeres y el Presidente: Fujimori y La Equidad de Gnero? Lima: Manuela Ramos.
  • Htun, Mala N. 2002. ‘Mujeres y poder político en Latinoamérica,’ in International IDEA, Mujeres en el Parlamento. Más allá de los números, Stockholm: International IDEA, pp. 19-44.
  • Htun, Mala N. and Mark P. Jones. 2002. ‘Engendering the Right to Participate in Decision-Making: Electoral Quotas and Women's Leadership in Latin America.’ Nikki Craske and Maxine Molyneux(ed.) Gender and the Politics of Rights and Democracy in Latin America. New York: Palgrave. pp. 32-56.
  • Peschard, Jacqueline. 2002. ‘El sistema de cuotas en América Latina. Panorama general,’ in International IDEA. Mujeres en el Parlamento. Más allá de los números. Stockholm: International IDEA, pp. 173-186.
  • Lama, Abraham. 2001. ‘Politics-Peru: Efforts to Elect More Women Founder.’ Interpress Service, September 13.
  • Women's Leadership Conference of the Americas. 2001. Women and Power in the Americas: A Report Card. Washington: Women's Leadership Conference of the Americas.
  • Jimenez Polanco, Jacqueline. 2001. ‘La représentation politique des femmes en Amérique Latine: une analyse comparée’ (Women's political representation in Latin America: a comparative analysis). Bérengère Marques-Pereira and Patricio Nolasco (ed.) La représentation politique des femmes en Amérique Latine(Women's political representation in Latin America). Brussels: L'Harmattan. pp. 27-81.
  • United States Agency for International Development. 2000. The USAID Commitment. Report.
  • Blondet, Cecilia. 1999. Las mujeres y la política en la década de Fujimori. Working Paper no. 109. Instituto de Estudios Peruanos.
  • Barrig, Maruja. 1998. ‘Female Leadership, Violence, and Citizenship in Peru’. Jaquette, Jane and Wolchik, Sharon (eds.) Women and Democracy. Latin America and Central and Eastern Europe. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. pp.104-124.
  • Poder político con perfume de mujer: Las cuotas en el Perú(Political power with the scent of a woman: Quotas in Peru). 1998. Lima: Movimiento Manuela Ramos and Instituto de Estudios Peruanos.
  • Htun, Mala N. 1998. Women's Political Participation, Representation and Leadership in Latin America. Issue Brief, Women's Leadership Conference of the Americas.
  • Hosken, Fran. 1998. ‘IWRAW Report: Peru.’ Women's International Network (WIN News) 24, no. 4. pp. 72.
  • Villaneuva, Victoria and Rocío Palomino. 1998. ‘Perú: Acceso de la mujer al poder y a instancias de toma de decisiones.’ Silvia Vega Ugalde (ed.).  Acceso de las mujeres a la toma de decisiones en los países andinos. Quito: Coalición Política de Mujeres Andinas. pp. 79-107.
  • Blondet, Cecilia. 1998. ‘El poder político en la mira de las mujeres.’ In Poder politico con perfume de mujer. Las cuotas en el Perú. Lima: Movimiento Manuela Ramos/ Instituto de Estudios Peruanos.
  • Lama, Abraham. 1997b. ‘Peru-Women: New Quota Law Aims at Correcting Gender Imbalance.’ Interpress Service, June 5.
  • Lama, Abraham. 1997a. ‘Peru-Rights: Women Gain in Political Representation.’ Interpress Service, November 11.
  • Gutierrez, Estrella. 1997. ‘Women-Latam: Andean Women Flex Their Political Muscle.’ Interpress Service, September 23.
  • Peru Parliament website, http://www.congreso.gob.pe/

Additional reading

Americas | Global

Know about useful additional reading for Peru? Tell us!

Comments

 

Do you have news concerning gender quotas for promoting
the equal participation and representation of women and men?
Please send them to us so that we can keep the information on this site up to date.

 

Contact Us

Disclaimer: Maps presented do not imply on the part of the Institute any judgement on the legal status of any territory or the endorsement of such boundaries, nor does the placement or size of any country or territory reflect the political view of International IDEA. Maps are used in order to add visual clarity to data.