Gender Quotas Database

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Peru (Republic of Peru)

Peru (Republic of Peru) has a Unicameral parliament with legislated quotas for the single/lower house and at the sub-national level. 39 of 130 (30%) seats in the Congreso de la República / Congress of the Republic are held by women.

At a glance

Structure of Parliament: Unicameral

Are there legislated quotas...

  • For the Single/Lower House? Yes
  • For the Sub-National Level? Yes

Are there voluntary quotas...

  • Adopted by political parties? No

Is there additional information?...

  • Yes

Last updated: Apr 1, 2019

Single/Lower House

Congreso de la República / Congress of the Republic

Total seats 130
Total Women 39
% Women 30%
Election Year 2016
Electoral System List PR
Quota Type Legislated Candidate Quotas¤
Election details IDEA Voter Turnout - IPU Parline
  Legal source Details
Quota type: Legislated Candidate Quotas¤ Constitution  
Electoral law The candidate lists for the seats in the Congress must include at least 30% of men or women candidates. If after the application of the 30% quota the result is a number containing a fraction, it is raised to the next higher integer; e.g. in a candidate list with 5 names at least 2 must be women (Electoral law, Article 116 and Law No. 28094 regulating Political Parties, Article 26).
Legal sanctions for non-compliance Electoral law If the candidate lists do not abide by the gender quota requirements, they shall not be admitted by the electoral authority (Electoral law, Article 119).
Rank order/placement rules Electoral law None
Is the provision of direct public funding to political parties related to gender equality among candidates? No

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See more in International IDEA's Political Finance database
Are there provisions for other financial advantages to encourage gender equality in political parties? No

BLANK


See more in International IDEA's Political Finance database

Quota at the Sub-National Level

  • Quota type: Legislated Candidate Quotas¤
  Legal source Details
Quota type: Legislated Candidate Quotas¤ Constitution  
Electoral law The candidate lists for the seats in municipal and regional councils must include at least 30% women candidates. If after the application of the 30% quota the result is a number containing a fraction, it is raised to the next higher integer. For example, in a candidate list with 5 names at least 2 must be women’s names (Law No. 26864 regulating Municipal Elections, Article 10 (3), Law No. 27683 regulating Regional Elections, Article 12 (1) and Law No. 28094 regulating Political Parties, Article 26).
Legal sanctions for non-compliance Electoral law If a candidate list does not comply with the gender quota the political party will have 2 business days to correct the list and submit it again to the commission. If after that period the candidate list still fails to meet the gender quota, the list will not be accepted (Municipal Electoral law, Article 10 (2)).
Rank order/placement rules Electoral law None

Additional Information

Gender quotas have been incorporated in Peru’s national electoral legislation since 1997. The 2000 national election was conducted with one nation-wide constituency, and the 25 per cent quota provision was almost met (21.7 per cent of candidates elected were women, up from 10.8 per cent in the 1995 election). However, in the 2001 national election, in which the country was divided into electoral districts, the number of women elected dropped to 18.3 per cent. In the 2006 election women's representation increased, and the new quota provision of 30 per cent was almost met. In addition, according to the Law No. 28094, the political parties must apply a 30 per cent gender quota to their internal structures (Article 26).

Sources

LEGAL SOURCES:

Additional reading

  • Schmidt, G and Araújo, C. ‘The Devil’s in the Details: Open List Voting and Gender Quotas in Brazil and Peru’, paper presented at the XXV International Congress of Latin American Studies Association, Las Vegas, October 2004.
  • Schmidt, Gregory. 2003b. Las Mujeres y el Presidente: Fujimori y La Equidad de Gnero? Lima: Manuela Ramos.
  • Schmidt, Gregory. 2003a. Cuotas efectivas, Magnitud Relativa del Partido y el xito de las Candidatas Mujeres: Una Evaluacin Comparativa de las Elecciones Municipales Peruanas. Lima: Manuela Ramos.
  • Schmidt, G. 2003. ‘Unanticipated Successes: Lessons from Peru’s Experience with Gender Quotas in Majoritarian Closed List and Open List PR Systems’, in International IDEA The Implementation of Quotas: Latin American Experiences, Quota Workshop Report Series no. 2, Stockholm: International IDEA, pp. 120–33.
  • Htun, Mala N. 2002. ‘Mujeres y poder político en Latinoamérica,’ in International IDEA, Mujeres en el Parlamento. Más allá de los números, Stockholm: International IDEA, pp. 19-44.
  • Htun, Mala N. and Mark P. Jones. 2002. ‘Engendering the Right to Participate in Decision-Making: Electoral Quotas and Women's Leadership in Latin America.’ Nikki Craske and Maxine Molyneux(ed.) Gender and the Politics of Rights and Democracy in Latin America. New York: Palgrave. pp. 32-56.
  • Peschard, Jacqueline. 2002. ‘El sistema de cuotas en América Latina. Panorama general,’ in International IDEA. Mujeres en el Parlamento. Más allá de los números. Stockholm: International IDEA, pp. 173-186.
  • Jimenez Polanco, Jacqueline. 2001. ‘La représentation politique des femmes en Amérique Latine: une analyse comparée’ (Women's political representation in Latin America: a comparative analysis). Bérengère Marques-Pereira and Patricio Nolasco (ed.) La représentation politique des femmes en Amérique Latine(Women's political representation in Latin America). Brussels: L'Harmattan. pp. 27-81.
  • Lama, Abraham. 2001. ‘Politics-Peru: Efforts to Elect More Women Founder.’ Interpress Service, September 13.
  • Women's Leadership Conference of the Americas. 2001. Women and Power in the Americas: A Report Card. Washington: Women's Leadership Conference of the Americas.
  • United States Agency for International Development. 2000. The USAID Commitment. Report.
  • Blondet, Cecilia. 1999. Las mujeres y la política en la década de Fujimori. Working Paper no. 109. Instituto de Estudios Peruanos.
  • Barrig, Maruja. 1998. ‘Female Leadership, Violence, and Citizenship in Peru’. Jaquette, Jane and Wolchik, Sharon (eds.) Women and Democracy. Latin America and Central and Eastern Europe. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. pp.104-124.
  • Blondet, Cecilia. 1998. ‘El poder político en la mira de las mujeres.’ In Poder politico con perfume de mujer. Las cuotas en el Perú. Lima: Movimiento Manuela Ramos/ Instituto de Estudios Peruanos.
  • Hosken, Fran. 1998. ‘IWRAW Report: Peru.’ Women's International Network (WIN News) 24, no. 4. pp. 72.
  • Htun, Mala N. 1998. Women's Political Participation, Representation and Leadership in Latin America. Issue Brief, Women's Leadership Conference of the Americas.
  • Poder político con perfume de mujer: Las cuotas en el Perú(Political power with the scent of a woman: Quotas in Peru). 1998. Lima: Movimiento Manuela Ramos and Instituto de Estudios Peruanos.
  • Villaneuva, Victoria and Rocío Palomino. 1998. ‘Perú: Acceso de la mujer al poder y a instancias de toma de decisiones.’ Silvia Vega Ugalde (ed.).  Acceso de las mujeres a la toma de decisiones en los países andinos. Quito: Coalición Política de Mujeres Andinas. pp. 79-107.
  • Gutierrez, Estrella. 1997. ‘Women-Latam: Andean Women Flex Their Political Muscle.’ Interpress Service, September 23.
  • Lama, Abraham. 1997a. ‘Peru-Rights: Women Gain in Political Representation.’ Interpress Service, November 11.
  • Lama, Abraham. 1997b. ‘Peru-Women: New Quota Law Aims at Correcting Gender Imbalance.’ Interpress Service, June 5.
  • Peru Parliament website, http://www.congreso.gob.pe/

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