Gender Quotas Database

Country Data



Panama (Republic of Panama)

Panama (Republic of Panama) has a Unicameral parliament with legislated quotas for the single/lower house. 16 of 71 (23%) seats in the Asamblea Nacional / National Assembly are held by women.

At a glance

Structure of Parliament: Unicameral

Are there legislated quotas...

  • For the Single/Lower House? Yes
  • For the Sub-National Level? No

Are there voluntary quotas...

  • Adopted by political parties? No

Is there additional information?...

  • Yes

Last updated: Oct 1, 2021

Single/Lower House

Asamblea Nacional / National Assembly

Total seats 71
Total Women 16
% Women 23%
Election Year 2019
Electoral System FPTP List PR
Quota Type Legislated Candidate Quotas
Election details IDEA Voter Turnout - IPU Parline
  Legal source Details
Quota type: Legislated Candidate Quotas Constitution  
Electoral law

Article 303 of the Electoral Code establishes that for primary and until the general elections there is a quota of 50% women. Political parties have to fulfill  the quota to be elected  or the list will not be admited by the Electoral Tribunal. 

The article also add that only a lower percentage would be admited when  the Female Secretary can certify that there is a lower femenin participation than the percentage established. In those cases, political parties will be able to complete the lists.

Legal sanctions for non-compliance No

The lists that do not fulfill the gender quotas requirement of 50% will not be admited.

Rank order/placement rules No None
Is the provision of direct public funding to political parties related to gender equality among candidates? Yes  
See more in International IDEA's Political Finance database
Are there provisions for other financial advantages to encourage gender equality in political parties? Other

It is an obligation to guarantee 50% participation of women. in internal eleccions.

See more in International IDEA's Political Finance database

Additional Information

 Before the introduction of the 50 per cent rule, the law mandated the requirement of a minimum 30 per cent women in nomination lists.





Additional reading

  • Gender Equality Observatory for Latin America and the Caribbean: Panamá (Official Website)
  • Htun, Mala N. 2002. ‘Mujeres y poder político en Latinoamérica,’ in International IDEA, Mujeres en el Parlamento. Más allá de los números, Stockholm: International IDEA, pp. 19-44.
  • Htun, Mala N. and Mark P. Jones. 2002. ‘Engendering the Right to Participate in Decision-Making: Electoral Quotas and Women's Leadership in Latin America.’ Nikki Craske and Maxine Molyneux(ed.) Gender and the Politics of Rights and Democracy in Latin America. New York: Palgrave. pp. 32-56.
  • Peschard, Jacqueline. 2002. ‘El sistema de cuotas en América Latina. Panorama general,’ in International IDEA. Mujeres en el Parlamento. Más allá de los números, Stockholm: International IDEA, pp. 173-186.
  • Women's Leadership Conference of the Americas. 2001. Women and Power in the Americas: A Report Card. Washington: Women's Leadership Conference of the Americas.
  • Htun, Mala N. 1998. Women's Political Participation, Representation and Leadership in Latin America. Issue Brief, Women's Leadership Conference of the Americas.
  • Panama Parliament website,

Additional reading

Americas | Global

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