New Zealand (New Zealand) has a Unicameral parliament with the use of voluntary party quotas. 59 of 120 (49%) seats in the House of Representatives are held by women.
At a glance
Structure of Parliament: Unicameral
Are there legislated quotas...
- For the Single/Lower House? No
- For the Sub-National Level?
Are there voluntary quotas...
- Adopted by political parties? Yes
Is there additional information?...
Last updated: Dec 6, 2021
Voluntary Political Party Quotas*
|Party||Official name||Details, Quota provisions|
|The Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand||The Green Party adopted a 50/50 % quota in 2015; “In Government, it will ensure half of all Green Cabinet Ministers are women”|
|Labour||The Moderating Committee must, in determining the list, ensure that for any percentage of the Party Vote likely to be obtained, and taking into account the electorate MPs likely to be elected with that level of Labour support, the resultant Caucus will comprise at least 50% women (Party constitution, article 8.47)|
* Only political parties represented in parliament are included. When a country has legislated quotas in place, only political parties that have voluntary quotas that exceed the percentage/number of the national quota legislation are presented in this table.
"2020 elections in New Zealand saw an unprecedented increase in the numbers of women and traditionally under-represented groups both in parliament and in government, reflecting people’s demand for due representation of all sectors of society in a time of pandemic. The female Prime Minister was widely considered to have competently and efficiently managed her country’s response to COVID-19, which may have boosted her bid for reelection" (IPU, 2021).
"New Zealand already had a relatively diverse Parliament. Following the 2017 election, 38% of New Zealand's MPs were women -- a record in the country. Now it's 48%. The proportion of LGBTQ lawmakers has also increased from 7% to 11%. Māori representation has slipped, however, from 23% at the last election to 21%. That's the lowest level of Māori representation since 2014, but it is still higher than the total proportion of people who identify as Māori in the general population -- around 17%" (CNN).
- Section 7: Reports
- The Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand , official website
- Labour, official website
- Inter-Parlamentary Union, (2021). Women in Parliament in 2020 The Year in Review.
- Hollingsworth, J., Shveda, K., Leung, N., Bouquet, D. & Pettersson, H. (November 2020). New Zealand has just elected one of the most diverse parliaments in the world. Here's how it stacks up. [CNN]. Accessed March 2021.
- Cardo, V. (2021). Gender politics online? Political women and social media at election time in the United Kingdom, the United States and New Zealand. European Journal of Communication, 36(1), 38-52. doi:10.1177/0267323120968962
- RNZ (October 2020). Election 2020: 'Historical high' - New Zealand Parliament readies for more diversity. Accessed March 2021.
- Curtin, J. (2008). Women, Political Leadership and Substantive Representation: the Case of New Zealand. Parliamentary Affairs, 61(3), pg. 490-504. [Advance Access Publication 16 March 2008]
- UN Women. (September 20, 2016). Global leaders' meeting on gender equality and women's empowerment: New Zealand Update.