Gender Quotas Database

Country Data



Norway (Kingdom of Norway)

Norway (Kingdom of Norway) has a Unicameral parliament with the use of voluntary party quotas. 78 of 169 (46%) seats in the Stortinget / Parliament are held by women.

At a glance

Structure of Parliament: Unicameral

Are there legislated quotas...

  • For the Single/Lower House? No
  • For the Sub-National Level? No

Are there voluntary quotas...

  • Adopted by political parties? Yes

Is there additional information?...

  • No

Last updated: Feb 28, 2023

Single/Lower House

Stortinget / Parliament

Total seats 169
Total Women 78
% Women 46%
Election Year 2021
Electoral System List PR
Quota Type No legislated
Election details IDEA Voter Turnout - IPU Parline

Voluntary Political Party Quotas*

Party Official name Details, Quota provisions
Socialist Left Party Sosialistisk Venstreparti [SV] Since 1975, SV has had a 40 percent quota for both sexes on electoral lists (Freidenvall, et. al. 2006, p. 71).
Norwegian Labour Party Det Norske Arbeiderparti [DNA] In all election lists there is a 50 percent quota for both sexes, and both sexes shall be represented in the first two positions (Party Constitution, §12:9). Quotas first used in 1983 (Matland 2005).
Centre Party Senterpartiet [SP] There is a 40 percent quota for either sex in all elections and nominations, since 1989 (Laws of the Centre Party, §4:4).
Christian People's Party Kristelig Folkeparti [KrF] KrF has had a 40 percent quota for both sexes since 1993 (Freidenvall, et. al. 2006, p. 71).

* Only political parties represented in parliament are included. When a country has legislated quotas in place, only political parties that have voluntary quotas that exceed the percentage/number of the national quota legislation are presented in this table.

Additional Information





Additional reading

  • See the latest updates on Norway on iKNOW Politics
  • Segaard, S. B. & Saglie, J. (2021). A gender-generation gap in political representation? The contingent impact of preference voting in Norwegian municipal elections. Local Government Studies, 47(1), pp. 145-165. doi:10.1080/03003930.2020.1797691
  • Geys, B. & Sørensen, R.J. (2019). The impact of women above the political glass ceiling: Evidence from a Norwegian executive gender quota reform. Electoral studies, 60, pp. 102050.
  • Hagemann, G. 2003. Feminisme og historieskriving – inntrykk fra en reise, Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.
  • Teigen, M. 2003. Kvotering og kontrovers, Oslo: Pax.
  • Skjeie, H. & Teigen, M. 2003. Menn imellom. Mannsdominans og likestillingspolitikk,
    Oslo: Gyldendal Akademisk.
  • Skjeie, H. 2003. Særuttalelse: Demokrati, makt og menneskerettigheter, in Sluttrapport fra Makt- og demokratiutredningen, NOU 2003: 19, Oslo: Statens forvaltningstjeneste, Informasjonsforvaltning, pp. 74–87.
  • Teigen, M. 2002. Kvotering og kontrovers. Virkemidler i likestillingpolitikken. Oslo: Institutt for samfunnsforskning.
  • Narud, H.M., Pedersen, M.N. & Valen, H. (eds) 2002. Party Sovereignty and Citizen Control. Selecting Candidates for Parliamentary Elections in Denmark, Finland, Iceland and Norway, Odense: University Press of Southern Denmark.
  • Skjeie, H. 2001. Quotas, Parity and the Discursive Dangers of Difference. Klausen, Jytte and Charles Maier (eds.) Has Liberalism Failed Women? Assuring Equal Representation in Europe and the United States. New York: Palgrave
  • Bergqvist, C. (ed.). 1999. Equal Democracies? Gender and Politics in the Nordic Countries. Oslo: Scandinavian Universities and the Nordic Council of Ministers.
  • Inhetveen, K. 1999. Can gender equality be institutionalized? The role of launching values in institutional innovation. International Sociology,14 (4), pp. 403-422.
  • Christensen, A. 1999. Women in Political Parties. Christina B. (ed). Equal Democracies? Gender and Politics in the Nordic Countries. Oslo: Scandinavian Universities and the Nordic Council of Ministers.
  • Matland, R. & Studlar, D.T. 1996. The Contagion of Women Candidates in Single-Member District and Proportional Representation Electoral Systems: Canada and Norway. The Journal of Politics, 58(3), 707–33.
  • Bacchi, C. L. 1996. Politics of Affirmative Actions. Women, Equality and Category Politics. London: Sage.
  • Raum, N. C. 1995. The Political Representation of Women: A Bird's Eye View in Karvonen, Lauri and Per Selle (eds). Women in Nordic Politics: Closing the Gap. Dartmouth, pp.25-55.
  • Bystydzienski, J.M. 1995. Women in Electoral Politics: Lessons from Norway, Westport: Praeger.
  • Skjeie, H. 1993a. Målrettet og tilfeldig: kvoteringspraksis og kvinnerepresentasjon på Stortinget (Intentional and accidental: The practice of quotas and women’s representation in the Norwegian Parliament). Tidsskrift for samfunnsforskning 34(5-6), pp. 479-486.
  • Skjeie, H. 1993b. Ending the Male Political Hegemony: The Norwegian Experience. Lovenduski, Joni and Pippa Norris (eds.). Gender and Party Politics. London: Sage
  • Matland, R. E. 1993. Institutional Variables Affecting Female Representation in National Legislatures: The Case of Norway. Journal of Politics, 55(3), pp. 737-755.
  • Skjeie, H. 1992. Den politiske betydningen av kjønn: En studie av norsk topp-politikk,
    (The Political Significance of Gender: A Study of Norwegian Top Politics). Oslo: Institute for Social Research
  • Rokkan, S. 1987. Stat, nasjon, klasse, Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.
  • Hernes, H. 1982. Staten – kvinner ingen adgang? Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.
  • Holter, H. 1981. Om kvinneundertrykkelse, mannsundertrykelse og hersketeknikker,
    in K. Andenaes, T. Johansen and T. Mathisen (eds) Maktens ansikter: perspektiver på makt og maktforskning, Oslo: Gyldendal, pp. 216–35.
  • Lasse, T. & Nielsen, L. 1979. Kønskvotering i det norske Storting? (Gender quotas in the Norwegian Parliament?). Kvinden og samfundet, 95(7), pp. 4.
  • Norwegian Parliament website,

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