Netherlands (Kingdom of the Netherlands) has a Bicameral parliament with the use of voluntary party quotas. 50 of 150 (33%) seats in the Tweede Kamer der Staten-Generaal / House of Representatives are held by women.
At a glance
Structure of Parliament: Bicameral
Are there legislated quotas...
- For the Single/Lower House? No
- For the Upper House?
- For the Sub-National Level? No
Are there voluntary quotas...
- Adopted by political parties? Yes
Is there additional information?...
Last updated: Feb 19, 2020
Voluntary Political Party Quotas*
|Party||Official name||Details, Quota provisions|
|Labour Party||Native name [PvdA]||National lists are in principle alternated between men and women, although other concerns such as age and ethnicity are also considered. Congress has the last say on the composition of lists (1987).|
|Green Left||GroenLinks [GL]||GL has quotas for women (percentage not confirmed).|
* Only political parties represented in parliament are included. When a country has legislated quotas in place, only political parties that have voluntary quotas that exceed the percentage/number of the national quota legislation are presented in this table.
- Electoral Gender Quotas and Their Implementation in Europe, Stockholm University and International IDEA, 2009.
- Constitution of The Netherlands (rev. 2018) (English version)
- Electoral Act (rev. 2015) (English version)
- Oldersma, J. 2005. ‘High tides in a low country: gendering political
representation in the Netherlands’, in Lovenduski, J. et al (eds) State Feminism and Political Representation, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 153-173.
- Bussemaker, Jet and Rian Voet (eds.). 1998. Gender, Participation and Citizenship in the Netherlands. Brookfield: Ashgate.
- Leijenaar, Monique. 1998. ‘Political Empowerment of Women in the Netherlands.’ Jet Bussemaker and Rian Voet (eds.). Gender, Participation and Citizenship in the Netherlands. Brookfield: Ashgate. pp. 91-107.
- Bacchi, Carol Lee. 1996. Politics of Affirmative Actions. Women, Equality and Category Politics. London: Sage.
- Netherland Parliament website, https://www.houseofrepresentatives.nl/