Gender Quotas Database

Country Data



Netherlands (Kingdom of the Netherlands)

Netherlands (Kingdom of the Netherlands) has a Bicameral parliament with the use of voluntary party quotas. 61 of 150 (41%) seats in the Tweede Kamer der Staten-Generaal / House of Representatives are held by women.

At a glance

Structure of Parliament: Bicameral

Are there legislated quotas...

  • For the Single/Lower House? No
  • For the Upper House?
  • For the Sub-National Level? No

Are there voluntary quotas...

  • Adopted by political parties? Yes

Is there additional information?...

  • Yes

Last updated: Feb 8, 2023

Single/Lower House

Tweede Kamer der Staten-Generaal / House of Representatives

Total seats 150
Total Women 61
% Women 41%
Election Year 2021
Electoral System List PR
Quota Type No legislated
Election details IDEA Voter Turnout - IPU Parline

Upper House

Eerste Kamer der Staten-Generaal / Senate

Total seats 75
Total Women 24
% Women 32%
Election Year 2019
Electoral System Indirectly Elected
Quota Type >
Election details IPU Parline
  Legal source Details
Quota type: Electoral law  
Legal sanctions for non-compliance No data available
Rank order/placement rules No data available

Voluntary Political Party Quotas*

Party Official name Details, Quota provisions
Labour Party Partij van de Arbeid [PvdA] National lists are in principle alternated between men and women, although other concerns such as age and ethnicity are also considered. Congress has the last say on the composition of lists (1987).
Green Left GroenLinks [GL] GL has quotas for women (percentage not confirmed).

* Only political parties represented in parliament are included. When a country has legislated quotas in place, only political parties that have voluntary quotas that exceed the percentage/number of the national quota legislation are presented in this table.

Additional Information

In addition to formal regulations on gender quotas, some parties have initiated other types of measures, such as agreements between various intra-party structures or territorial organizations on the number of women candidates to be selected for nomination. In 2004, the Christian Union adopted a resolution which called national and sub-national party boards and committees to ensure that at least one in every three candidates are women (Stockholm University & International IDEA 2009)

"The 2021 elections returned an even more fragmented House of Representatives than the previous legislature: 17 parties, up from 13 in the previous legislature, entered the 150-member House of Representatives. Only four parties took more than 15 seats." (IPU)




Additional reading

  • See the latest updates on The Netherlands on iKNOW Politics
  • Oldersma, J. 2005. ‘High tides in a low country: gendering political
    representation in the Netherlands’, in Lovenduski, J. et al (eds) State Feminism and Political Representation, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 153-173.
  • Bussemaker, J., & Voet, R. (eds.). 1998. Gender, Participation and Citizenship in the Netherlands. Brookfield: Ashgate.
  • Leijenaar, M. 1998. ‘Political Empowerment of Women in the Netherlands.’ Bussemaker, J. & Voet, R. (eds.). Gender, Participation and Citizenship in the Netherlands. Brookfield: Ashgate. pp. 91-107.
  • Bacchi, C. L. 1996. Politics of Affirmative Actions. Women, Equality and Category Politics. London: Sage.
  • Netherland Parliament website,

Additional reading

Europe | Global

Know about useful additional reading for Netherlands? Tell us!



Do you have news concerning gender quotas for promoting
the equal participation and representation of women and men?
Please send them to us so that we can keep the information on this site up to date.


Contact Us

Disclaimer: Maps presented do not imply on the part of the Institute any judgement on the legal status of any territory or the endorsement of such boundaries, nor does the placement or size of any country or territory reflect the political view of International IDEA. Maps are used in order to add visual clarity to data.