Gender Quotas Database

Country Data



Netherlands (Kingdom of the Netherlands)

Netherlands (Kingdom of the Netherlands) has a Bicameral parliament with the use of voluntary party quotas. 50 of 150 (33%) seats in the Tweede Kamer der Staten-Generaal / House of Representatives are held by women.

At a glance

Structure of Parliament: Bicameral

Are there legislated quotas...

  • For the Single/Lower House? No
  • For the Upper House?
  • For the Sub-National Level? No

Are there voluntary quotas...

  • Adopted by political parties? Yes

Is there additional information?...

  • Yes

Last updated: Feb 19, 2020

Single/Lower House

Tweede Kamer der Staten-Generaal / House of Representatives

Total seats 150
Total Women 50
% Women 33%
Election Year 2017
Electoral System List PR
Quota Type No legislated
Election details IDEA Voter Turnout - IPU Parline

Voluntary Political Party Quotas*

Party Official name Details, Quota provisions
Labour Party Native name [PvdA] National lists are in principle alternated between men and women, although other concerns such as age and ethnicity are also considered. Congress has the last say on the composition of lists (1987).
Green Left GroenLinks [GL] GL has quotas for women (percentage not confirmed).

* Only political parties represented in parliament are included. When a country has legislated quotas in place, only political parties that have voluntary quotas that exceed the percentage/number of the national quota legislation are presented in this table.

Additional Information

In addition to formal regulations on gender quotas, some parties have initiated other types of measures, such as agreements between various intra-party structures or territorial organizations on the number of women candidates to be selected for nomination. In 2004, the Christian Union adopted a resolution which called national and sub-national party boards and committees to ensure that at least one in every three candidates are women (Stockholm University and International IDEA 2009))



Additional reading

  • Oldersma, J. 2005. ‘High tides in a low country: gendering political
    representation in the Netherlands’, in Lovenduski, J. et al (eds) State Feminism and Political Representation, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 153-173.
  • Bussemaker, Jet and Rian Voet (eds.). 1998. Gender, Participation and Citizenship in the Netherlands. Brookfield: Ashgate.
  • Leijenaar, Monique. 1998. ‘Political Empowerment of Women in the Netherlands.’ Jet Bussemaker and Rian Voet (eds.). Gender, Participation and Citizenship in the Netherlands. Brookfield: Ashgate. pp. 91-107.
  • Bacchi, Carol Lee. 1996. Politics of Affirmative Actions. Women, Equality and Category Politics. London: Sage.
  • Netherland Parliament website,

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