Mozambique (Republic of Mozambique) has a Unicameral parliament with the use of voluntary party quotas. 106 of 250 (42%) seats in the Assembleia da Republica / Assembly of the Republic are held by women.
At a glance
Structure of Parliament: Unicameral
Are there legislated quotas...
- For the Single/Lower House? No
- For the Sub-National Level? No
Are there voluntary quotas...
- Adopted by political parties? Yes
Is there additional information?...
Last updated: Nov 26, 2021
Voluntary Political Party Quotas*
|Party||Official name||Details, Quota provisions|
|Front for the Liberation of Mozambique||Frente de Libertação de Moçambique [FRELIMO]||FRELIMO has used gender quotas since 1994. The party's policy requires that 40% of candidates to national assembly and local government should be women. In addition, the quota system was accompanied by a commitment to balance the distribution of men and women through the list. Currently, FRELIMO holds 191 seats of a total of 250 in the national assembly, in effect a three-fourths majority.|
|Mozambican National Resistance||Resistência Nacional Moçambicana [RENAMO]||a) The National Council is composed by 120 members elected by Congress. Two) In the process of electing members of the National Council, the principle is observed representation of provinces and gender. (Article 28 (2) of the Party Statutes)|
* Only political parties represented in parliament are included. When a country has legislated quotas in place, only political parties that have voluntary quotas that exceed the percentage/number of the national quota legislation are presented in this table.
11 November 2019:
"Women’s representation in parliament in Mozambique decreased by 2 percentage points the October elections. While Mozambique is one of the better performers in the Southern African development Community (SADC) the failure to reach gender parity in these elections is a serious set-back. “We have only two elections to go before the 2030 deadline for the Sustainable development Goals and the SADC on Gender and Development,” noted GL Lusophone Alice Banze. “A legislated quota is a necessary pre-requisite for equal representation,” she added.
[...] The election results show that it is time for reflection and action towards the 2024 election. There is need to engage with the public, particularly women who constitute the majority of voters about what they want from government. Political parties need to present plans and strategies that advance gender equality and women’s rights" (Genderlinks.org November 2019)
- Constitution of Mozambique (English version)
- Electoral Institute for Sustainable Democracy in Africa [EISA]
- SADC Gender Protocol 2011 Barometer
- Genderlinks.org (November 2019) Gender Parity in Mozambique Parliament Elusive. [Accessed March 2021]
- The Carter Center, NGO Submission to the U.N Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women Session 73, July 2019, Mozambique
- Yoon, M. Y. 2001. Democratization and Women's Legislative Representation in Sub-Saharan Africa. Democratization, 8(2), pp. 169-190.
- Kethusegile, B. et al. 2000. Beyond Inequalities: Women in Southern Africa. Harare: SARDC.
- Lowe-Morna, C. 2000. ‘Strategies for Increasing Women's Participation in Politics’, paper presented to the Fifth Meeting of Commonwealth Ministers Responsible for Women's Affairs.
- Inter-Parliamentary Union [IPU]. 1997. Democracy Still in the Making: A World Comparative Study. Geneva: Inter-Parliamentary Union.
- Jacobson, R. 1996. ‘Genderand Democratisation: The Mozambican Election of 1994’, Internet Journal of African Studies, No.1.