Mexico (United Mexican States) has a Bicameral parliament with the use of voluntary party quotas. 241 of 500 (48%) seats in the Cámara de Diputados / Chamber of Deputies are held by women.
At a glance
Structure of Parliament: Bicameral
Are there legislated quotas...
- For the Single/Lower House? Yes
- For the Upper House? Yes
- For the Sub-National Level? Yes
Are there voluntary quotas...
- Adopted by political parties? Yes
Is there additional information?...
Last updated: Apr 23, 2019
Cámara de Diputados / Chamber of Deputies
|Quota type: Legislated Candidate Quotas¤||Constitution||Article 41 of the Federal Constitution requires that political parties develop "...rules to ensure gender parity in the nomination of candidates in federal and local congressional elections."|
|Electoral law||The Federal Chamber of Deputies is composed of 500 members, elected for a 3-year term, 300 of whom are elected in single-member constituencies by plurality vote, with the remaining 200 members elected by proportional representation (PR) in five 40-seat constituencies. Political parties are required to guarantee that at least 40% of the candidates on the lists are of the same gender. This applies to both lists of candidates for the PR election, and candidates for the constituency elections. However, parties that democratically elect their candidates are exempt from these requirements of the Electoral Code (Código Federal de Instituciones y Procedimientos Electorales, COFIPE, Article 219).|
|Legal sanctions for non-compliance||Electoral law||Parties not complying with Articles 219 and 220 will have 48 hours to rectify their lists. After this period, if still found to be non-compliant, parties will be publicly reprimanded by the General Council of the Federal Electoral Institute (IFE) and given an extra period of 24 hours to rectify their list. Finally, if the 24 hours pass and the party is still in a state of non-compliance with quota regulations, its electoral lists will be rejected by the IFE (COFIPE, Article 221).|
|Rank order/placement rules||Electoral law||For the PR elections, each segment of 5 candidates on the list shall have 2 candidates of each sex, alternating between men and women candidates (COFIPE, Article 220).|
|Is the provision of direct public funding to political parties related to gender equality among candidates?||No||
Public funding to registered parties is a legal right in all instances.
See more in International IDEA's Political Finance database
|Are there provisions for other financial advantages to encourage gender equality in political parties?||Yes, funds earmarked for gender activities||
Three percent of public funds are earmarked towards female leadership development within parties.
See more in International IDEA's Political Finance database
Cámara de Senadores / Senate
|Quota Type||Legislated Candidate Quotas¤>|
|Election details||IPU Parline|
|Quota type: Legislated Candidate Quotas¤||Electoral law||The Senate is composed of 128 members, 96 of whom are elected in single-member constituencies by plurality vote, with the remaining 32 members elected by proportional representation (PR) in a single nationwide constituency. Political parties are required to guarantee that at least 40% of the candidates on the lists are of the same gender. This applies to both lists of candidates for the PR election, and candidates for the constituency elections. However, parties that democratically elect their candidates are exempt from these requirements (COFIPE, Article 219).|
|Legal sanctions for non-compliance||Electoral law||Parties not complying with the law will have at first 48 hours to rectify their lists, or will be publicly reprimanded. 24 hours after the reprimand, the IFE will refuse to register the list (COFIPE, Article 221).|
|Rank order/placement rules||Electoral law||For the PR elections, each segment of five candidates on the list shall have two candidates of each sex, alternating men and women (COFIPE, Article 220).|
Quota at the Sub-National Level
- Quota type: Legislated Candidate Quotas
|Quota type: Legislated Candidate Quotas||Constitution|
|Electoral law||Elections at the sub-national level are regulated by each state. Please see additional information.|
|Legal sanctions for non-compliance||State regulations||Elections at the sub-national level are regulated by each state. Please see additional information.|
|Rank order/placement rules||State regulations||Elections at the sub-national level are regulated by each state. Please see additional information.|
Voluntary Political Party Quotas*
|Party||Official name||Details, Quota provisions|
|Institutional Revolutionary Party||Partido Revolucionario Instituional [PRI]||PRI has a 50 percent quota for women (article 38, party statutes).|
* Only political parties represented in parliament are included. When a country has legislated quotas in place, only political parties that have voluntary quotas that exceed the percentage/number of the national quota legislation are presented in this table.
In February 2014, Mexico passed a constitutional amendment to the Article 41 of the Federal Constitution requiring that that political parties develop "...rules to ensure gender parity in the nomination of candidates in federal and local congressional elections." This amendment marks a critical improvement over the past constitutional requirement of 40-60 % representation of either sex in the Assembly, and requires parity and alternation between women and men on parties’ candidate lists. According to the OAS Preliminary Report on the 2018 Mexican elections, the constitutional amendment gave way for legal reforms and that "Mexico has developed a robust body of legislation to ensure gender parity and equality, which has been accompanied by effective action by the electoral bodies." The results from the 2018 elections saw a significant increase of women in both parliament and senate. Although the legal provisions have been effective in increasing women's political participation, they do not apply to the single-member posts, women are still in clear minority (as in the presidential election) which shows the remaining barriers for women to participate on equal grounds.
“Mexico is only the third country in Latin America to enact a gender parity law for its national legislature and is proud to have the highest percentage of women in the Senate and fourth-highest in the House of Representatives of any Latin American country. While the previous round of reforms had increased the minimum quota of women from 30 percent of the list to 40 percent, parties were avoiding the quota by holding primary elections, a loophole that is now closed.”
“Within the framework of the previous federal electoral process (2012), and because of the parties’ lack of compliance with the gender quota when nominating candidates—due to the application of a selection process based on the democratic processes foreseen by their statutes—the Electoral Court of the Judicial Power of the Federation passed a sentence that solved the supremacy of the gender quota over any other internal selection procedure to nominate candidates used by the political parties, including the internal elections.” The Assembly set 30 April 2014 as the deadline for developing a set of amendments to the electoral legislation to set out detailed rules for implementing this constitutional amendment through laws regulating electoral processes and the operation of political parties.
- Global Legal Monitor - Law Library of Congress, accessed 23 April 2014;
- Decreto pol el que se Reforma. Adiciona y Derogan Diversas Disposiciones de la Constitución Política de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos, en Materia Política-Electoral DIARIO OFICIAL DE LA FEDERACION (DOF)(‘Official Journal of the Federation’), accessed 22 May 2014;
- Codigo Federal de Instituciones y Procedimientos Electorales 2008 [Federal Code of Electoral Institutions and Procedures of Mexico 2008] (version updated on 18 September 2013), accessed 03 April 2014;
- Federal Code of Electoral Institutions and Procedures of Mexico 2008, accessed 03 April 2014;
- Decreto no 1335, Código de Instituciones Políticas y Procedimientos Electorales para el Estado de Oaxaca [Decree no. 1335, Code on political institutions and electoral procedures for the State of Oaxaca, version updated 17 August 2012], accessed 03 April 2014;
- Cabrales, J “Gender and constitutionalism in Mexico: from quotas to parity?” ConstitutionNet - International IDEA, accessed 23 April 2014;
- Baldez, L., ‘Primaries vs. Quotas: Gender and Candidate Nominations in Mexico, 2003’, Latin American Politics and Society, 49/3 (2007);
- Cerva Cerna, D., ‘Los partidos políticos frente a la equidad de género’ [Political parties against gender equality], in B. Llanos and K. Sample (eds), Del dicho al hecho: manual de buenas practicas para la participación de mujeres en los partidos políticos latinoamericanos [From words to action: best practices for women’s participation in Latin American political parties] (Stockholm: International IDEA, 2008), accessed 03 April 2014;
- Peschard, J., ‘Quota Implementation in Mexico’, in The Implementation of Quotas: Latin American Experiences, Quota Report Series no. 2 (Stockholm: International IDEA, 2003), accessed 03 April 2014;
- Zetterberg, P., ‘Quotas and Women’s Symbolic Representation: Lessons from Mexico’, in S. Franceschet, M. L. Krook and J. Piscopo (eds), The Impact of Gender Quotas (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012)
- Baldez, L. ‘Obedecieron y Cumplieran? The Impact of the Gender Quota Law in Mexico’, paper presented at the XXV International Congress of Latin America Studies Association, Las Vegas, October 2004.
- Bartra, E. 2002. ‘Três Décades de Neofeminismo en México’ in E. Bartra, A. Poncela and A. Lau (eds) Feminismo en México, Ayer y Hoy, Colección Molinos de Viento, Serie Mayor 130, Cuidad de México: Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana.
- Htun, Mala N. 2002. Women in Political Power in Latin America. Manuscript.
- Htun, Mala N. and Mark P. Jones. 2002. ‘Engendering the Right to Participate in Decision-Making: Electoral Quotas and Women's Leadership in Latin America.’ Nikki Craske and Maxine Molyneux(ed.) Gender and the Politics of Rights and Democracy in Latin America. New York: Palgrave. pp. 32-56.
- Lovera, Sara. 2002. ‘Indispensable que partidos políticos incluyan candidaturas igualitarias entre hombres y mujeres’ (Indispensable that political parties include a balanced list of male and female candidates). Cimacnoticias.com, March 6. http://www.cimacnoticias.com/noticias/02mar/02030605.html
- Maya, Rafael. 2002a. ‘Se retracta el PAN de demanda de inconstitucionalidad’ (The PAN retracts its inconstitutionality demands). Cimacnoticias.com. January 15. http://www.cimacnoticias.com.mx/noticia/se-retracta-el-pan-de-demanda-de-inconstitucionalidad
- Peschard, Jacqueline. 2002. ‘El sistema de cuotas en América Latina. Panorama general,’ in International IDEA. Mujeres en el Parlamento. Más allá de los números, Stockholm: International IDEA, pp. 173-186.
- Jimenez Polanco, Jacqueline. 2001. ‘La représentation politique des femmes en Amérique Latine: une analyse comparée’ (Women's political representation in Latin America: a comparative analysis). Bérengère Marques-Pereira and Patricio Nolasco (ed.) La représentation politique des femmes en Amérique Latine(Women's political representation in Latin America). Brussels: L'Harmattan. pp. 27-81.
- Women's Leadership Conference of the Americas. 2001. Women and Power in the Americas: A Report Card. Washington: Women's Leadership Conference of the Americas.
- Stevenson, Linda S. 1999. ‘Gender Politics in the Mexican Democratization Process.’ In Towards Mexico's Democratization, ed.Jorge Dominguez and Alejandro Poire. New York: Routledge.
- Htun, Mala N. 1998. Women's Political Participation, Representation and Leadership in Latin America. Issue Brief, Women's Leadership Conference of the Americas.
- Kapur, Vatsala. 1998. ‘Women's Contribution to the Democratization of Mexican Politics: An Exploration of Their Formal Participation in the National Action Party and the Party of the Democratic Revolutioni.’ Mexican Studies 14, no. 2. pp. 363-388.
- Inter-Parliamentary Union. 1997b. Towards Partnership Between Men and Women in Politics. Geneva: Inter-Parliamentary Union.
- Fernández Poncela, Anna M., ed. 1995. Participación política: Las mujeres en México al final del milenio(Political participation: Women in Mexico at the end of the millennium). Mexico City: El Colegio de México.
- Mexican Parliament website, http://www.diputados.gob.mx/