Gender Quotas Database

Country Data



Malta (Republic of Malta)

Malta (Republic of Malta) has a Unicameral parliament with legislated quotas for the single/lower house. 22 of 79 (28%) seats in the Il-Kamra Tad-Deputati / House of Representatives are held by women.

At a glance

Structure of Parliament: Unicameral

Are there legislated quotas...

  • For the Single/Lower House? Yes
  • For the Sub-National Level? No

Are there voluntary quotas...

  • Adopted by political parties? No

Is there additional information?...

  • Yes

Last updated: Aug 29, 2022

Single/Lower House

Il-Kamra Tad-Deputati / House of Representatives

Total seats 79
Total Women 22
% Women 28%
Election Year 2022
Electoral System STV
Quota Type Legislated Candidate Quotas
Election details IDEA Voter Turnout - IPU Parline
  Legal source Details
Quota type: Legislated Candidate Quotas Constitution

In the event that the number of Members of Parliament of the under-represented sex, elected by virtue of article 52, inclusive of those members elected at a casual election interms of the relevant regulations, is less than forty per cent (40%) of all the Members of Parliament, then the number of Members of Parliament shall increase by not more than twelve (12) Members of the under-represented sex (Art. 52, Constitution of Malta and the General Elections (Amendment) Act, 2021).

Electoral law

In the event that the percentage of the under-represented sex is below forty percent (40%), the Commission shall assign up to a maximum of twelve (12) additional seats. Subject to the provisions of article 52(1) of the Constitution, the number of additional seats resulting from the application of the equation shall be rounded down to the nearest even integer to ensure that the additional seats allocated to the under-represented sex in terms of article 52A of the Constitution shall be an even integer and the elected members of the under-represented sex elected to the House shall not exceed forty percent (40%) (General Elections Act (Cap 354) p.94). 

Legal sanctions for non-compliance No data available
Rank order/placement rules Yes

Provided that in the event that the number of candidates established under this article is not reached, following the application of the preceding sub-article, such candidates belonging to the under-represented sex shall be declared by the Electoral Commission to be elected to fill the remaining additional seats created by this article who, being candidates of the party which is to be credited with the additional seats, were ranked on a national basis by the Electoral Commission with the highest or next higher number of percentage quota obtained on the basis of their respective final count vote before elimination in relation to the quota of the electoral division contested (Art. 52A.(2) Constitution of Malta and the General Elections (Amendment) Act, 2021).

Is the provision of direct public funding to political parties related to gender equality among candidates? No  
See more in International IDEA's Political Finance database
Are there provisions for other financial advantages to encourage gender equality in political parties? No  
See more in International IDEA's Political Finance database

Additional Information

"Single-Transferable Vote (STV) has been in use in Maltese elections since 1921, long before this small Mediterranean Island nation achieved independence from Britain in 1964. Although Malta subsequently became a republic and replaced the office of Governor-General (representative of the Queen) with a President, it retained the Westminster model of parliamentary democracy. The constitution mandates election of the members of the House of Representatives, Malta's unicameral parliament, 'upon the principle of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote.' The maximum length of a parliamentary term is five years, but the legislature may be dissolved earlier. There are no other elective offices except for local councils introduced by the 1993 Local Councils Act, whose members are elected by STV as well. For purposes of parliamentary election the country is currently divided into 13 divisions, all of which is of roughly the same population size." (AceProject, n.d.)

"In January 2021, the Maltese Parliament approved on second reading reforms to the constitution as well as the law on elections that seek to enhance women’s representation in parliament and the Electoral Commission. The proposed reforms have received cross-party support and are set to be approved with the required two-thirds majority in the next stages.
The proposed constitutional changes before parliament are driven by a stark statistic: only nine of Malta’s current 67 members of parliament (MPs) are women, putting the country the second from lowest, after Hungary, for proportion of women MPs in Europe. This is reflected in the female employment rate of just 63 percent, which is among the bottom five in the European Union." (Borg, V. P., 2021)




Additional reading

Additional reading

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