Gender Quotas Database

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Morocco (Kingdom of Morocco)

Morocco (Kingdom of Morocco) has a Bicameral parliament with legislated quotas for the single/lower house and at the sub-national level. 81 of 395 (21%) seats in the Majliss-annouwab / House of Representatives are held by women.

At a glance

Structure of Parliament: Bicameral

Are there legislated quotas...

  • For the Single/Lower House? Yes
  • For the Upper House? No
  • For the Sub-National Level? Yes

Are there voluntary quotas...

  • Adopted by political parties? No

Is there additional information?...

  • Yes

Last updated: Feb 22, 2019

Single/Lower House

Majliss-annouwab / House of Representatives

Total seats 395
Total Women 81
% Women 21%
Election Year 2016
Electoral System List PR
Quota Type Reserved seats
Election details IDEA Voter Turnout - IPU Parline
  Legal source Details
Quota type: Reserved seats Constitution  
Electoral law

305 of the 395 members of the lower house are elected in 92 multi-member constituencies through a proportional representation system. An additional 60 seats are reserved for women, while 30 are reserved for young men and women under the age of 40 (Article 23 (2) of the Organic Law No. 20-16, amending Law No. 27-11). The 60 reserved seats for women are filled by winners elected through a proportional representation system based on nation-wide closed party lists (Article 23 (2) of the Organic Law No. 27-11 on the House of Representatives).

This system, first legislated through the 2011 electoral reforms, builds upon the previous ‘honorary agreement’ between the political parties, formed in 2002, which reserved 30 seats for women (see additional information).

Legal sanctions for non-compliance Electoral law Lists of candidates that violate the provisions of Article 23, including the quota requirements, shall be rejected (Article 24 (2)).
Rank order/placement rules N/A Not applicable
Is the provision of direct public funding to political parties related to gender equality among candidates? Yes

a special found is created to support projects that aim to strengthen women participation


See more in International IDEA's Political Finance database
Are there provisions for other financial advantages to encourage gender equality in political parties? Yes, funding to women  
See more in International IDEA's Political Finance database

Quota at the Sub-National Level

  • Quota type: Reserved seats
  Legal source Details
Quota type: Reserved seats Constitution  
Electoral law

A new law regulating elections at the sub-national level (Law n° 59-11 on the election of council members of local authorities) was adopted in 2011, introducing quota provisions for women. In particular, according to Articles 76 and 77, at least one-third of the seats in regional councils, which are directly elected, must be reserved for women.

Furthermore, for elections to the lower district and communal councils, the law provides for additional electoral constituencies reserved for women, who should be elected through a proportional representation system (Article 143 and explanatory note).

Legal sanctions for non-compliance N/A Not applicable
Rank order/placement rules N/A Not applicable

Additional Information

The electoral threshold for the 92 multi-member constituencies is 6 per cent, while for the one national constituency the threshold is 3 per cent. In 2002 the political parties signed a charter that reserved 30 seats for women in the lower house, elected through a special nation-wide list. The 2007 election followed the same rules. Following the democratic uprising in 2011, the quota regulation was codified in the new electoral law for the 2011 elections, and the number of reserved seats for women was extended to 60 seats, while 30 seats were reserved for young men under the age of 40. In the 2011 elections, only seven women were elected to a constituency seat, a slight increase from four in 2007 and five in 2002, when the reserved seats were first introduced. In 2016, the 30 seats previosly reserved for young men opened up to include both men and women under the age of 40. 

At the sub-national level, the 2008 reform introduced a 12 per cent quota for the communal elections through the creation of ‘additional electoral constituencies’ in urban and rural communities and districts (Articles 204 (1) and (2) of the electoral code), as well as the creation of a ‘support fund for the promotion of women representativeness’ (Article 288). Although not explicitly mentioned in the electoral law, there was a national consensus that these seats would be reserved for women. As a result of this reform, women’s local representation increased from 0.6 per cent to 12.3 per cent in the 2009 local government elections. In the next local elections, the 2011 law on the election of council members of local authorities, reserving seats for women in regional, communal and district councils, will be applied.

Sources

LEGAL SOURCES:

 

Additional reading

  • Hanane Darhour & Drude Dahlrup: Sustainable representation of women through gender quotas: A decade's experience in Morocco. Women's Studies International Forum
  • Abdul Aziz, M. 2004. ‘Morocco Experience’, in Al-Mara al-Maghribiya wa al-Barlaman, Cairo: Alliance for Arab Women.
  • Hall, E.C. ‘Quotas and Transnational Networks Answering the Challenge of Moroccan Women’s Access to Political Space’, paper presented at the 960 Political Science Seminar, 2003.
  • Leicester, John. 2002. ‘Women to Take Seats in Morocco Government’, Associated Press. September 27.
  • ArabicNews.com, 3 August 2001,  www.arabicnews.com ‘Enhancing women's political participation in Morocco’, Afrol News, 3 June 2001,
    www.afrol.com/News2001/mor004_women_politics.htm
  • Charrad, M.M. 2001. States and Women’s Rights: The Making of Postcolonial Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco, Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Inter-Parliamentary Union. ‘Women in Politics: Promising Developments in Eastern Europe and the Arab Countries’, Press Release no. 130, 1 March 2001.
  • ‘Moroccan Women Associations Press for Women's Enlarged Access to Top Positions’, 2001. ArabicNews.com, 5 February 2001.
    www.arabicnews.com/ansub/Daily/Day/010205/2001020506.html
  • Moroccan Parliament website, http://www.parlement.ma/

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