Gender Quotas Database

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Korea, Republic of (Republic of Korea)

Korea, Republic of (Republic of Korea) has a Unicameral parliament with the use of voluntary party quotas. 51 of 300 (17%) seats in the Kuk Hoe / National Assembly are held by women.

At a glance

Structure of Parliament: Unicameral

Are there legislated quotas...

  • For the Single/Lower House? Yes
  • For the Sub-National Level? Yes

Are there voluntary quotas...

  • Adopted by political parties? Yes

Is there additional information?...

  • Yes

Last updated: Apr 16, 2019

Single/Lower House

Kuk Hoe / National Assembly

Total seats 300
Total Women 51
% Women 17%
Election Year 2016
Electoral System Parallel
Quota Type Legislated Candidate Quotas¤
Election details IDEA Voter Turnout - IPU Parline
  Legal source Details
Quota type: Legislated Candidate Quotas¤ Constitution  
Electoral law Article 47 of the Public Official Election Act specifies that for the list proportional representation elections, whereby 56 deputies are elected, political parties must include 50% women on candidate lists. For the majority portion of the election, whereby 243 representatives are elected in single-member districts, political parties shall include at least 30% of women candidates in their district nominations.
Legal sanctions for non-compliance Electoral law

Lists which do not comply with the quota provisions will be considered invalid (Article 52 (2)).

Rank order/placement rules Electoral law For the list proportional representation election, political parties shall ‘recommend candidates falling under every odd number in order of the candidate roll from among women’ (Article 47 (3)).
Is the provision of direct public funding to political parties related to gender equality among candidates? Yes

Article 26 (Subsidies for Fielding Female Candidates to Run in Elections for Public Office) (1) The State shall include an amount obtained by multiplying 100 won by the total number of eligible voters in the most recently held election for National Assembly members at the expiration of their terms of office, in the budget of the year during which an election for National Assembly members, an election for City/Do council members, or an election for autonomous Gu/Si/Gun council members is held at the expiration of their terms of office as subsidies for payment to political parties that field female candidates to run in an election for constituency National Assembly members, an election for constituency City/Do council members, or an election for constituency autonomous Gu/Si/Gun council members (hereinafter referred to as "subsidies for fielding female candidates"). 


See more in International IDEA's Political Finance database
Are there provisions for other financial advantages to encourage gender equality in political parties? Yes, funds earmarked for gender activities

Article 28 (Restrictions, etc. on Use of Subsidies) … (2) Every political party that is paid the ordinary subsidies shall use at least 30/100 of such ordinary subsidies for its policy development institute (referring to the policy development institute provided for in the provisions of Article 38 of the Political Parties Act; hereinafter the same shall apply), distribute and pay at least 10/100 thereof to its City/Do party branch offices and use at least 10/100 thereof for the development of female politics.


See more in International IDEA's Political Finance database

Quota at the Sub-National Level

  • Quota type: Legislated Candidate Quotas¤
  Legal source Details
Quota type: Legislated Candidate Quotas¤ Constitution  
Electoral law

When any political party intends to recommend its members as candidates to run for seats in local councils contested through the proportional representation system, a political party shall recommend not less than 50% of the candidates from among women.

When any political party intends to recommend its members as candidates to run in the election for local council members of local constituencies after their term of office expires, such political party shall recommend not less than 30% of the total number of the candidates to run in the election for nationwide constituencies from among women (Article 47 (3–5)).

Legal sanctions for non-compliance Electoral law The lists of candidates that do not comply with the gender quota provisions shall be rejected (Articles 49 (8) and 52 (2)).
Rank order/placement rules Electoral law For the list proportional representation election for local councils, political parties shall ‘recommend candidates falling under every odd number in order of the candidate roll from among women’ (Article 47 (3)).

Voluntary Political Party Quotas*

Party Official name Details, Quota provisions
Grand National Party Hannara Dang [GNP] GNP supports quotas of 30 percent for women candidates. (see Kim 2000)

* Only political parties represented in parliament are included. When a country has legislated quotas in place, only political parties that have voluntary quotas that exceed the percentage/number of the national quota legislation are presented in this table.

Additional Information

The reform of the Political Party Law in 2000 resulted in an increase in the percentage of women elected in the April 2004 elections, rising to 13 per cent, up from 5.9 per cent in the previous elections. Parties that nominate female candidates for the national elections also receive subsidies (Article 26).

Sources

LEGAL SOURCES:

Additional reading

  • Kim, Won-hong, 2000. ‘The 16th General Elections and Advancement of Women to the National Assembly.’ Korean Women Today. Summer.
  • Sun-uk, Kim. 1995. ‘Meaning of the Quota system as a Policy for Women and its Introduction Methods.’ Women's Studies Forum. 11. pp. 29-54.

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