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Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz Republic)

Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz Republic) has a Unicameral parliament with legislated quotas for the single/lower house and at the sub-national level. 18 of 88 (20%) seats in the Jogorku Kenesh / Supreme Council are held by women.

At a glance

Structure of Parliament: Unicameral

Are there legislated quotas...

  • For the Single/Lower House? Yes
  • For the Sub-National Level? Yes

Are there voluntary quotas...

  • Adopted by political parties? No

Is there additional information?...

  • Yes

Last updated: Jun 14, 2022

Single/Lower House

Jogorku Kenesh / Supreme Council

Total seats 88
Total Women 18
% Women 20%
Election Year 2022
Electoral System Parallel
Quota Type Legislated Candidate Quotas
Election details IDEA Voter Turnout - IPU Parline
  Legal source Details
Quota type: Legislated Candidate Quotas Constitution  
Electoral law

Art. 60.3. A political party in elections under the proportional system shall nominate a list of candidates from a political party in the number not exceeding 54 candidates. When determining the list of candidates, a political party must take into account the following representation:

- no more than 70 percent of candidates of the same sex, and the difference in the alternation of women and men nominated by political parties shall not exceed three positions (Constitutional Law of the Kyrgyz Republic).

Legal sanctions for non-compliance No data available
Rank order/placement rules Electoral law

Art. 64.4. In the distribution of mandates received by a political party, first of all, not less than 30 percent of the total number of mandates received by a political party shall be distributed among female candidates who received the most votes. If women candidates from a political party list do not receive votes, the remaining mandates under the women's quota shall be distributed in the queue in accordance with the procedure for placement of women candidates on the political party list established by the Central Election Commission upon registration (Constitutional Law of the Kyrgyz Republic)

Is the provision of direct public funding to political parties related to gender equality among candidates? Not applicable  
See more in International IDEA's Political Finance database
Are there provisions for other financial advantages to encourage gender equality in political parties? No  
See more in International IDEA's Political Finance database

Quota at the Sub-National Level

  • Quota type: Legislated Candidate Quotas
  Legal source Details
Quota type: Legislated Candidate Quotas Constitution  
Electoral law

For carrying out elections of deputies of ayylny keneshes not less than 30 percent of mandates of deputies of the ayylny kenesh for women on each ayylny kenesh are reserved (Constitutional Law of local keneshes, Art. 59-1). 

Legal sanctions for non-compliance
Rank order/placement rules Electoral law

Art. 62.2. In determining the results of elections of deputies of aiyl keneshes, the mandates reserved in accordance with Part 1 of Article 59-1 of this Law shall be distributed among women candidates. Candidates who have more votes than other women candidates shall be deemed elected. If the number of women candidates in the constituency is less than the number of seats reserved, the remaining seats after the distribution of the seats specified in the first paragraph shall be distributed among other candidates in accordance with Part 3 of this Article. If there are no women candidates in the respective constituency, the reserved seats shall be distributed among other candidates in accordance with Part 3 of this Article (Constitutional Law of local keneshes).

Art. 62.3. After redistribution of the mandates reserved for the reserve, the remaining mandates shall be distributed among the remaining candidates. Candidates who have received the largest number of votes of the voters of the respective constituency who participated in the voting (according to the number of mandates) shall be recognized as elected (Constitutional Law of local keneshes).

Additional Information

In the 2005 elections, during which the country moved from a bicameral to a unicameral parliament with a majority/plurality electoral system, no women were elected to parliament. In 2007, the number of seats in the chamber was increased from 75 to 90, and the electoral system was changed to proportional representation.

In the new 2010 Constitution, the electoral system was further reformed. Under the new system, 120 members of parliament are elected in one nationwide constituency. Seats are distributed to parties in proportion to the share of votes they obtain. However, no party can win over 65 seats. Vacant seats are filled by ‘next-in-line’ candidates of the same party.

The new constitution, which was adopted in April of 2021, replaces a parliamentary system with a presidential one, with presidents limited to two five years terms instead of a single six-year term. It also reduces the number of seats in the Supreme Council from 120 to 90 and establishes a constitutional court.

Kyrgyzstan has mixed system which consist of proportional representation component under which 54 members are elected and single member districts under which 36 members are elected. The law provides 30% quota only for the proportional representation component and for single mandate districts there is no such requirement (OSCE EOM Report).

In August 2019, the law on the 30 per cent quota in the local councils was successfully adopted by the national parliament, signed by the President of the Kyrgyz Republic, and thereafter entered into force (OSCE). 

Additional reading

  • Kloop, 2021, Gender quotas as an opportunity for parties to gain power or a chance for women to get into politics, Kloop Link
  • OSCE Election Observation Mission, Interim Report 2021, Link to the report
  • UNDP Kyrgyz Republic, President of Kyrgyzstan signs off a bill on gender quota in local parliaments, UNDP Link
  • Asian Development Bank (ADB), 2019, Kyrgyz Republic country gender assessment, ADB Link

Additional reading

Asia | Global

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