Iceland (Republic of Iceland) has a Unicameral parliament with the use of voluntary party quotas. 25 of 63 (40%) seats in the Althingi / Parliament are held by women.
At a glance
Structure of Parliament: Unicameral
Are there legislated quotas...
- For the Single/Lower House? No
- For the Sub-National Level? No
Are there voluntary quotas...
- Adopted by political parties? Yes
Is there additional information?...
Last updated: Feb 15, 2021
Voluntary Political Party Quotas*
|Party||Official name||Details, Quota provisions|
|The Social Democratic Alliance||Samfylkingin [S]||At electoral lists, the main rule is to strive towards gender equality. In all elected bodies within the party, each sex should be represented with no less than 40 percent. If, among the candidates, one sex is represented by less than 40 percent, these candidates will be nominated without a vote. (Party statutes 1999, article 2:10.)|
|The Left-Green Movement||Vinstrihreyfingin-grænt framboð [VG]||When candidates are chosen for positions at all levels in the party structure, as well as for electoral lists, gender equality shall be observed. (Party Statutes 1999, article 3.)|
|Progressive Party (Centre Party)||Framsóknarflokkur||When choosing candidates to all levels of the internal party structures and for electoral lists, each sex must be represented with at least 40 percent, unless for obvious and manifest impediments.(Party statutes 2005, article 13:8.)|
|The Women's Party||Kvennalistinn||An all women's party. The Party existed 1982-1999, and received up to 10 percent of the votes in parliament.|
* Only political parties represented in parliament are included. When a country has legislated quotas in place, only political parties that have voluntary quotas that exceed the percentage/number of the national quota legislation are presented in this table.
Iceland has none quotas regulation for the Lower Camera or in the Sub-national level. However, many political parties regulate voluntary quotas.
- Samfylkingin: each sex should be represented by, at least, 40 per cent.
- Vinstrihreyfingin-grænt framboð: gender equality has to be ensured when candidates are chosen.
- Framsóknarflokkur: as in the case of Samfylkingin, each sex has to be represented by, at least a 40 per cent.
- Kvennalistinn: just composed of women.
Despite this voluntary quotas, the Lower Camera only includes 38 per cent of women.
Inter-Parliamentary Union, IPU Parline Iceland
- Kristjánsson, S. 2003. ‘Iceland: A Parliamentary Democracy with a Semi-presidential Constitution’, in K. Ström, W.C. Muller and T. Bergman (eds) Delegation and
Accountability in Parliamentary Democracies, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp.
- Kristjánsson, S. 2002. ‘Iceland: From Party Rule to Pluralist Political Society’, in
H.M. Narud, M.N. Pedersen and H. Valen (eds) Party Sovereignty and CitizenControl. Selecting Candidates for Parliamentary Elections in Denmark, Finland, Iceland and Norway, Odense: University Press of Southern Denmark, pp. 107–66.
- Narud, H.M., Pedersen, M.N. and Valen, H. (eds) 2002. Party Sovereignty and Citizen Control. Selecting Candidates for Parliamentary Elections in Denmark, Finland, Iceland and Norway, Odense: University Press of Southern Denmark.
- Bergqvist, Christina. (ed.) 1999. Equal Democracies? Gender and Politics in the Nordic Countries. Oslo: Scandinavian Universities and the Nordic Council of Ministers.
- Christensen, Ann-Dorte. 1999. ‘Kvinder i de politiske partier’ in Christina Bergquist et al Likestilte Demokratier? Kjönn og politikk i Norden. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.
- Inter-Parliamentary Union. 1997. Democracy Still in the Making: A World Comparative Study. Geneva: Inter-Parliamentary Union.
- Styrkársdóttir, A. 1986. ‘From social movement to political power: the new women’s movement in Iceland’, in D. Dahlerup (ed.) The New Women’s Movement: Feminism and Political Power in Europe and the US, Newbury Park: Sage, pp. 140–57.
- Icelandic Parliament website, http://www.althingi.is/