Gender Quotas Database

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Bolivia (Plurinational State of Bolivia)

Bolivia (Plurinational State of Bolivia) has a Bicameral parliament with the use of voluntary party quotas. 69 of 130 (53%) seats in the Cámara de Diputados / Chamber of Deputies are held by women.

At a glance

Structure of Parliament: Bicameral

Are there legislated quotas...

  • For the Single/Lower House? Yes
  • For the Upper House? Yes
  • For the Sub-National Level? Yes

Are there voluntary quotas...

  • Adopted by political parties? Yes

Is there additional information?...

  • Yes

Last updated: Apr 16, 2019

Single/Lower House

Cámara de Diputados / Chamber of Deputies

Total seats 130
Total Women 69
% Women 53%
Election Year 2014
Electoral System MMP
Quota Type Legislated Candidate Quotas¤
Election details IDEA Voter Turnout - IPU Parline
  Legal source Details
Quota type: Legislated Candidate Quotas¤ Constitution  
Electoral law Articles 11 and 58 (2) of the 2010 Electoral Law require that both principal and alternate candidate lists in multi-member constituencies for elections to the Lower House (Cámara de Diputados) must include equal numbers of men and women, in alternation. If a list is composed of an odd number of candidates, preference will be given to women. In single-member constituencies, at least 50% of the candidates (principal and alternate) nominated in the total number of constituencies must be women. This new legislation has been applied to the Chamber of Deputies elected in 2014.
Legal sanctions for non-compliance Electoral law The lists of candidates must comply with the requirements of parity and alternation. Breaches of this provision will result in the rejection of the list of candidates. In this case, the political organization shall be notified of the rejection, and should rectify the list of candidates no later than 72 hours from the notification (Article 107).
Rank order/placement rules Electoral Law The names of male and female candidates must alternate (Articles 11 and 58 (2)).
Is the provision of direct public funding to political parties related to gender equality among candidates? No  
See more in International IDEA's Political Finance database
Are there provisions for other financial advantages to encourage gender equality in political parties? No data  
See more in International IDEA's Political Finance database

Upper House

Cámara de Senadores / Chamber of Senators

Total seats 36
Total Women 17
% Women 47%
Election Year 2017
Electoral System MMP
Quota Type Legislated Candidate Quotas¤>
Election details IPU Parline
  Legal source Details
Quota type: Legislated Candidate Quotas¤ Electoral law Articles 11 and 54 (2) of the Electoral Law (2010) require that both principal and alternate candidate lists in multi-member constituencies for elections to the Upper House (Senado) must include equal number of men and women, in alternation. In single-member constituencies, at least 50% of the candidates (principal and alternate) nominated in the total number of constituencies must be women. This new legislation has been applied to the Chamber of Senators elected in 2014.
Legal sanctions for non-compliance Electoral law The lists of candidates must comply with the requirements of parity and alternation. Breaches of this provision will result in the rejection of the list of candidates. In this case, the political organization shall be notified of the rejection, and should rectify the list of candidates no later than 72 hours from the notification (Article 107).
Rank order/placement rules Electoral law The names of male and female candidates must alternate (Articles 11 and 54 (2)).

Quota at the Sub-National Level

  • Quota type: Legislated Candidate Quotas¤
  Legal source Details
Quota type: Legislated Candidate Quotas¤ Constitution  
Electoral law Article 11 of the Electoral Law (2010) requires that both principal and alternate candidate lists in multi-member constituencies for elections to district, municipal and regional councils must include equal number of men and women, in alternation. In single-member constituencies, at least 50% of the candidates (principal and alternate) nominated in the total number of constituencies must be women.
Legal sanctions for non-compliance Electoral law The lists of candidates must comply with the requirements of parity and alternation. Breaches of this provision will result in the rejection of the list of candidates. In this case, the political organization shall be notified of the rejection, and should rectify the list of candidates no later than 72 hours from the notification (Article 107).
Rank order/placement rules Electoral law The names of male and female candidates must alternate (Article 11).

Voluntary Political Party Quotas*

Party Official name Details, Quota provisions
National Unity Front Unidad Nacional [UN] In Article 31 of its founding statutes from 2003, UN writes that women shall be represented by 50 percent at all levels of the party structures, including candidate lists. This has not always been put into practice.

* Only political parties represented in parliament are included. When a country has legislated quotas in place, only political parties that have voluntary quotas that exceed the percentage/number of the national quota legislation are presented in this table.

Additional Information

A quota law for national elections was first introduced in 1997. According to this law, parties were required to include women on their lists of candidates, following the rule that every third candidate on the lists for Chamber of Deputies, and every fourth candidate for the Chamber of Senators, must be a woman. In 2010, the Electoral Law was amended to include the principle of parity, meaning that the number of men and women on the lists of candidates for any elections at the national and sub-national level should be equal (50/50), and that every other candidate on the lists should be a woman. The new law on parity has been applied for the first time in the recent 2014 general elections.

Sources

LEGAL SOURCES:

Additional reading

  • Ardaya, Gloria 2008 'La democracia y las buenas practices de inclusion de las mujeres en la política' in Sample, K. and Llanos, B. (ed) Del Dicho al Hecho International IDEA
  • Benavides, J.C. 2003. ‘Women’s Political Participation in Bolivia: Progress and Obstacles’ in International IDEA The Implementation of Quotas: Latin American
    Experiences, Quota Workshop Report Series no. 2, Stockholm: International IDEA, pp. 104–11.
  • ‘Cinco partidos incumplen leyes sobre cuotas electorales’ (Five parties do not meet the laws on electoral quotas). 2002. Cimacnoticias.com, April 3.
  • Htun, Mala N. 2002. ‘Mujeres y poder político en Latinoamérica,’ in International IDEA, Mujeres en el Parlamento. Más allá de los números, Stockholm: International IDEA, pp. 19-44.
  • Htun, Mala N. and Mark P. Jones. 2002. ‘Engendering the Right to Participate in Decision-Making: Electoral Quotas and Women's Leadership in Latin America.’ Nikki Craske and Maxine Molyneux(ed.) Gender and the Politics of Rights and Democracy in Latin America. New York: Palgrave. pp. 32-56.
  • Peschard, Jacqueline. 2002. ‘El sistema de cuotas en América Latina. Panorama general,’ in International IDEA. Mujeres en el Parlamento. Más allá de los números, Stockholm: International IDEA, pp. 173-186.
  • Jimenez Polanco, Jacqueline. 2001. ‘La représentation politique des femmes en Amérique Latine: une analyse comparée’ (Women's political representation in Latin America: a comparative analysis). Bérengère Marques-Pereira and Patricio Nolasco (ed.) La représentation politique des femmes en Amérique Latine(Women's political representation in Latin America). Brussels: L'Harmattan. pp. 27-81.
  • Women's Leadership Conference of the Americas. 2001. Women and Power in the Americas: A Report Card. Washington: Women's Leadership Conference of the Americas.
  • Htun, Mala N. 1998. Women's Political Participation, Representation and Leadership in Latin America. Issue Brief, Women's Leadership Conference of the Americas.
  • Estrada, Cecilia. 1998. ‘Bolivia: Mecanismos institucionales para la igualdad de oportunidades de hombres y mujeres y La mujer en el ejercicio de poder y la adopción de decisiones’ (Bolivia: Institutional mechanisms for equality of opportunities for women and men, and women in power and decision-making). Silvia Vega Ugalde(ed.) Acceso de las mujeres a la toma de decisiones en los países andinos(Access of women to decision-making in the Andean countries). Quito:
  • Gutierrez, Estrella. 1997. ‘Women-Latam: Andean Women Flex Their Political Muscle.’ Interpress Service, September 23.
  • Inter-Parliamentary Union. 1997a. Men and Women in Politics: Democracy Still in the Making, A World Comparative Study. Geneva: Inter-Parliamentary Union.
  • Rocha, Juan Carlos. 1997. ‘Bolivia-Women: Women Score a Win for Political Equality.’ Interpress Service, March.
  • Bolivia Parliament website, http://www.congreso.gov.bo/

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