Croatia (Republic of Croatia) has a Unicameral parliament with the use of voluntary party quotas. 31 of 151 (21%) seats in the Hrvatski Sabor / Croatian Parliament are held by women.
At a glance
Structure of Parliament: Unicameral
Are there legislated quotas...
- For the Single/Lower House? Yes
- For the Sub-National Level? No
Are there voluntary quotas...
- Adopted by political parties? Yes
Is there additional information?...
Last updated: Apr 16, 2019
Hrvatski Sabor / Croatian Parliament
|Quota type: Legislated Candidate Quotas||Constitution||N/A|
|Electoral law||In Article 12 (3) it states: if “one sex is substantially [under-represented] within the meaning of paragraph 2 of this Article if it accounts for less than 40% of representatives in political and public decision-making bodies” (The Act on Gender Equality, 2008).
Further, “When drawing up and proposing lists of candidates for the election of representatives to the Croatian Parliament…political parties and other authorised entities submitting such lists shall observe the principle of gender equality and seek to achieve the balance in terms of the representation of women and men on such election lists pursuant to the provision of Article 12 of this Act” (Article 15 (1), The Act on Gender Equality, 2008).
|Legal sanctions for non-compliance||Yes||
“Article 35 Political parties and other entities authorised to propose lists of candidates who… do not comply with the principle of gender equality that is laid down in Article 15 of this Act and who do not seek to achieve a balance in terms of representation of women and men on election lists pursuant to Article 12 of this Act shall be punished for a violation with a fine of HRK 50,000.00 in case of elections of members to the Croatian Parliament…” (The Act on Gender Equality, 2008).
|Rank order/placement rules||Yes||None|
|Is the provision of direct public funding to political parties related to gender equality among candidates?||Yes||
For each elected MP or member of the representative body of a local and regional self-government unit who belongs to an under-represented gender, political parties shall also be entitled to a bonus of 10% of the amount allocated for each MP or member of a representative body of such local and regional self-government
See more in International IDEA's Political Finance database
|Are there provisions for other financial advantages to encourage gender equality in political parties?||No||
See more in International IDEA's Political Finance database
Voluntary Political Party Quotas*
|Party||Official name||Details, Quota provisions|
|Social Democratic Party||Socijaldemokratska Partija Hrvatske [SDP]||In 1996 SDP introduced a voluntary party quota of 40 percent. In 2000 the party adopted a formal 40 percent quota for men and women on electoral lists, but no rank-order rules.|
* Only political parties represented in parliament are included. When a country has legislated quotas in place, only political parties that have voluntary quotas that exceed the percentage/number of the national quota legislation are presented in this table.
(1) “The implementation of specific measures shall serve to promote equal participation of women and men in legislative, executive and judicial bodies, including public services, and to gradually increase the participation of the [under-represented] sex in order for its representation to reach the level of its percentage in the total population of the Republic of Croatia.” (the Act on Gender Equality, 2008)
(2) “With a view to achieving the goal referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article, specific measures shall be introduced where one sex is substantially [under-represented].” (ibid)
(3)“One sex is substantially [under-represented] within the meaning of paragraph 2 of this Article if it accounts for less than 40% of representatives in political and public decision-making bodies.” (ibid)
VI. POLITICAL PARTIES
Article 15 (2)
“Pursuant to Article 12 paragraph 1 of this Act, gradual increase in the percentage of the [under-represented] sex shall be achieved not later than in the course of the implementation of the third regular elections to follow after the entry into force of this Act.” (Ibid)
This being that since the 2008 implementation of this law, the gradual increase of representation should be achieved within the next three regular elections. In terms of the parliamentary elections of 2011, (35% of women were on the ballots) (ipu.org), however, only 24% of women were elected to seats in parliament, up from 20% in the previous elections. Therefore, according to Article 15(2) the gradual increase, should be achieved by the 2020 elections.
Furthermore there is a section dedicated to explaining: Specific Measure, which may be crucial to understanding the functionality of the laws.
III. SPECIFIC MEASURES: Article 9
“(1) Specific measures are specific benefits enabling persons of a specific gender to have equal participation in public life, eliminating existing inequalities or ensuring them rights they were denied in the past… (2) Specific measures shall be introduced on a temporary basis with a view to achieving genuine equality of women and men and they shall not be deemed to be discrimination. Formulate key questions regarding the parity principle and its application to the MMP system – how exactly does it work in the majority districts, etc” (The Act on Gender Equality, 2008).
The apparent sanctions that exist in this law are as follows:
“Article 35 Political parties and other entities authorised to propose lists of candidates who, when proposing lists of candidates for the elections of members to the Croatian Parliament, to the representative bodies of units of local and regional self-government or to the European Parliament, do not comply with the principle of gender equality that is laid down in Article 15 of this Act and who do not seek to achieve a balance in terms of representation of women and men on election lists pursuant to Article 12 of this Act shall be punished for a violation with a fine of HRK 50,000.00 in case of elections of members to the Croatian Parliament and to the European Parliament, a fine of HRK 40,000.00 in case of elections of members of city councils and county assemblies or a fine of HRK 20,000.00 in case of elections of members of municipal councils.” (the Act on Gender Equality, 2008)
Political Parties: incentivized recruitment on the local and regional level of under-represented gender. According to Article 6 , “For each elected deputy or member of the representative body of a local and regional governmental unit who belongs to an under-represented gender, political parties shall also be entitled to a bonus of 10% of the amount allocated for each deputy or member of the representative body of such local and regional governmental unit, as specified in Article 5(1) of this Act.” (DECISION PROMULGATING THE POLITICAL ACTIVITY AND ELECTION CAMPAIGN FINANCING ACT. 2011)
The Act on Gender Equality NN 82/08, THE CROATIAN PARLIAMENT 2663, http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex4.detail?p_lang=&p_isn=83909 DECISION PROMULGATING THE POLITICAL ACTIVITY AND ELECTION CAMPAIGN FINANCING ACT. 2011, http://www.sabor.hr/Default.aspx?art=38452&sec=3253National Policy for Gender Equality for the period 2011-2015
- Antic, Milica. 2003. ‘Factors Influencing Women's Presence in Slovene Parliament,’ in Matland, R. and Montgomery, K. (eds) Women's Access to Power in Post Communist Europe, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Stability Pact Gender Task Force (SPGTF). 2002. ‘Building National Gender Equality Mechanisms in South East Europe – Women's Use of the State’.
- Bulgarian Gender Research Foundation. 2002: ‘Croatia’ in Implementation of the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). A Compilation of NGO Reports from Balkan Countries. pp.146-173.
- Antic, Milica. 2001. ‘Women in Politics in Slovenia's New Democracy: Why so few?’, in Hans-Dieter Klingemann and Charles L. Taylor (eds). Elections in Slovenia, 1990-1997: Analyses, Documents and Data, Series Founding Elections in Eastern Europe. Edition Sigma, Berlin: Rainer Bohn Verlag.
- Woodward, Alison. 2001. ‘Women Are Doing It: Building a Gender Balanced Democracy Using Sticks, Carrots and Kisses’. Stability Pact Gender Task Force Regional Meeting, Slovenia (SPGTF).
- Antic, Milica. 1999. ‘Slovene Political Parties and Their Influence on the Electoral Prospects of Women,’ Corrin, C. (ed.). Gender and Identity in Central and Eastern Europe. Frank Cass Publishers. pp. 7- 29.
- Antic, Milica. 1998. ‘Women in Parliament in Slovenia, Versus Losers of the “Wende” - Winners of the EU?’. ‘Participation of Women: Chances and effects of the transformation process’, Politik und Forum. Vienna. pp. 35-44.
- Croatian Parliament, http://www.sabor.hr/