Gender Quotas Database

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Ethiopia (Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia)

Ethiopia (Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia) has a Bicameral parliament with legislated quotas for the single/lower house. 195 of 470 (41%) seats in the Yehizb Tewokayoch Mekir Bete / House of Peoples' Representatives are held by women.

At a glance

Structure of Parliament: Bicameral

Are there legislated quotas...

  • For the Single/Lower House? Yes
  • For the Upper House? No
  • For the Sub-National Level? No

Are there voluntary quotas...

  • Adopted by political parties? No

Is there additional information?...

  • Yes

Last updated: Jan 31, 2022

Single/Lower House

Yehizb Tewokayoch Mekir Bete / House of Peoples' Representatives

Total seats 470
Total Women 195
% Women 41%
Election Year 2021
Electoral System FPTP
Quota Type Legislated Candidate Quotas
Election details IDEA Voter Turnout - IPU Parline
  Legal source Details
Quota type: Legislated Candidate Quotas Constitution  
Electoral law  
Legal sanctions for non-compliance No data available
Rank order/placement rules No data available
Is the provision of direct public funding to political parties related to gender equality among candidates? Yes

Chapter 7, Article 100. Government Funding: Amount and Eligibility Criteria

1. The government shall grant annual financial support for political parties to enable them conduct legal operations and meet their obligations, based on the vote they win at Federal and State Council elections, the support and donations they receive from members and supporters, the number of female and disabled candidates they nominate as candidates, and other relevant criteria.

2. The amount of financial support that a political party receives, in accordance with sub- article (1) above, shall be determined by a directive to be issued by the Board based on the following criteria:

a. the number of votes it wins at Federal and State Council elections;

b. the support and donations it receives from members and supporters;

c. the number of female candidates it nominates;

d. the number of female members of the party and number of female at leadership positions; and

e. the number of disabled candidates that it nominates.


See more in International IDEA's Political Finance database
Are there provisions for other financial advantages to encourage gender equality in political parties? No

However, By – Laws of Political Party (Article 74) state:

"[...]Every political party when conducting election for leadership position shall ensure gender balance consideration."


See more in International IDEA's Political Finance database

Additional Information

Article 54.3 of the Constitution establishes that "Members of the House, on the basis of population and special representation of minority Nationalities and Peoples, shall not exceed 550; of these, minority Nationalities and Peoples shall have at least 20 seats. Particulars shall be determined by law." The quota is for minorities so it is not considered gender quota because it is not focused only in women.

"Several elections were postponed to 2021 in some countries, including Ethiopia due to the COVID-19 pandemic" (IPU 2021). 

"[In 2021 a] total [of] 1,976 women were registered as candidates by political parties and six registered as independents. Most political parties set different qualification requirements for candidates running for HoPR and regional council elections. Consequently, more women candidates were registered for regional council elections (22% as compared to 16% for the HoPR). While women constituted some 42%of the PP candidates overall, most opposition parties reportedly struggled to include women candidates in their lists. Some political parties adopted specific gender policies, however, only 13 parties successfully reached the 20% threshold of registered women candidates to qualify for additional funding. 

In terms of political incentives and funding 'most opposition parties reportedly argued ‘that the received amounts were insufficient to conduct an effective campaign’ and ‘repeatedly complained about delays in the disbursement of these funds’ (International IDEA, 2018).

Some political parties attempted to implement voluntary gender quotas, however they were not always successful: e.g. EZEMA did not reach 20% of women candidates. Some women advanced after their parties joined the ruling PP: e.g. former leader of SEPDM (part of EPRDF)" (IRI-NDI, 2021)

In 2004 EPRF instituted a 30% quota for women, which was met (and exceeded) over the next several elections: 21.4% women in 2005, 27.8% in 2010, and 38.8% in 2015 (Breuning, M., & Okundaye, G. 2021. Half of the Cabinet: Explaining Ethiopia’s Move to Gender Parity in the Government). The current ruling Prosperity Party which was founded in 2019, is the successor of the EPRF and have adopted the same voluntary party quota (CEPPS Gender Assesment Report, 2020).

 

Sources

LEGAL SOURCES:

OTHER SOURCES:

 

Additional reading

  • Hailu, E. F. (2017)."Who Speaks for Whom? Parliamentary Participation of Women in the Post-1991 Ethiopia". Journal of Developing Societies. 33(3), 352-375. doi:10.1177/0169796X17717003
  • UN Women. Country Fact Sheet Ethiopia [Last Accessed 2021-10-22]
  • Okock, O., & Asfaw, M. (2014). 'Assessment of Gender Equality in Ethiopia: The Position of Ethiopian Women’s Political Representation from the World, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Eastern Africa Ethiopian Civil Service University' Journal of Law, Policy and Globalization. Vol. 28.
  • Forum for Social Studies [FSS]. (2012). Democratic change measures, implications and their options, in Ethiopia. [in Amharic]

Additional reading

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