Gender Quotas Database

Country Data



Eritrea (State of Eritrea)

Eritrea (State of Eritrea) has a Unicameral parliament with legislated quotas for the single/lower house and at the sub-national level. 33 of 150 (22%) seats in the Hagerawi Baito / National Assembly are held by women.

At a glance

Structure of Parliament: Unicameral

Are there legislated quotas...

  • For the Single/Lower House? Yes
  • For the Sub-National Level? Yes

Are there voluntary quotas...

  • Adopted by political parties? No

Is there additional information?...

  • Yes

Last updated: May 20, 2022

Single/Lower House

Hagerawi Baito / National Assembly

Total seats 150
Total Women 33
% Women 22%
Election Year 1994
Electoral System No direct elections
Quota Type Reserved seats
Election details IDEA Voter Turnout - IPU Parline
  Legal source Details
Quota type: Reserved seats Constitution

"Without consideration to the wording of any provision in this Constitution with reference to gender, all of its articles shall apply equally to both genders" (Eritrean Constitution Art. 5)

Electoral law

30% of Assembly seats shall be reserved for females. Females shall equal rights to contest in the remaining 70% of Assembly seats. (Eritrean Electoral Law Art. 12.4)

Legal sanctions for non-compliance N/A Not applicable
Rank order/placement rules N/A Not applicable
Is the provision of direct public funding to political parties related to gender equality among candidates? No data available
Are there provisions for other financial advantages to encourage gender equality in political parties? No data available

Quota at the Sub-National Level

  • Quota type: Reserved seats
  Legal source Details
Quota type: Reserved seats Constitution


Electoral law

A sub-region that has more than one representative shall reserve one-third of its representation for females (Eritrean Electoral Law Art. 17.2)

Legal sanctions for non-compliance N/A Not applicable
Rank order/placement rules N/A Not applicable

Additional Information

Following Eritrea’s independence from Ethiopia in 1993, a National Assembly (composed entirely of the People's Front for Democracy and Justice) was established as a transitional legislature and a Constitutional Commission was established to draft a constitution. The constitution was ratified in May 1997 but did not enter into effect, pending parliamentary and presidential elections. The parliamentary elections scheduled for December 2001 were then postponed indefinitely. Therefore, the quota provisions described above have not yet been implemented.




Additional reading

  • UN, Implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action and The Outcome of the Twenty-Third Special Session of the General Assembly, 2004 Eritrea UN Report
  • Hale, S. (2001). The State of the Women’s Movement in Eritrea. Northeast African Studies, 8(3), 155–177.
  • Lowe-Morna, C. 2000. ‘Strategies for Increasing Women's Participation in Politics’, paper presented to the Fifth Meeting of Commonwealth Ministers Responsible for Women's Affairs.
  • Leisure, S. 1999. ‘Exchanging Participation for Promises: Mobilization of Women in Eritrea’, in Jill M Bystydzienski and Joti Sekhon (eds) Democratization and Women's Grassroots Movements, Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.
  • Connell, D. 1998. ‘Strategies for Change: Women and Politics in Eritrea and South Africa’, in Review of African Political Economy, No. 76, pp. 189-206.

Additional reading

Africa | Global

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