Gender Quotas Database



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  • Kamenitsa, L. and Geissel, B. 2005. ‘WPAs and political representation in Germany’, in Lovenduski, J. et al (eds) State Feminism and Political Representation, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 106-129.
  • Brzinski, J.B. 2003. ‘Women’s Representation in Germany: A Comparison of East and West’, in R.E. Matland and K.A. Montgomery (eds) Women’s Access to Political Power in Post-Communist Europe, New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 63–80.
  • McKay, J. 2003. ‘Women in German Politics: Still Jobs for the Boys?’, German Politics, 13, 1: 56–80.
  • Meyer, B. 2003. ‘Much Ado about Nothing? Political Representation Policies and the Influence of Women Parliamentarians in Germany’, Review of Policy Research, 20, 3: 401–21.
  • Davidson-Schmich, L.K. ‘Voluntary Gender Quotas and Women’s Representation: Evidence from German State Legislatures’, paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Southern Political Science Association, Savannah, GA, November 2002.
  • Klausen, Jytte and  Charles Maier. 2001. Has Liberalism failed women? Assuring equal representation in Europe and the United States. New York: Palgrave
  • Lemke, Christiane. 2001. ‘Changing the Rules of the Game: The Role of Law and the Effets of Party Reforms on Gender Parity in Germany.’  Klausen, Jytte and Charles Maier (eds.). Has Liberalism Failed Women? Assuring Equal Representation in Europe and the United States. New York: Palgrave
  • Wiliarty, S.E. 2001. Bringing Women to the Party: The Christian Democratic Union
    (CDU) as a Corporatist Catch-All Party, doctoral thesis, University of California, Berkeley.
  • Inhetveen, Katharina. 1999. ‘Can Gender Equality Be Institutionalized? The Role of Launching Values in Institutional Innovation.’ International Sociology 14, no. 4. pp. 403-422.
  • Peters, Anne. 1999. Women, Quotas and Constitutions: A Comparative Study of Affirmative Action for Women under American, German, European Community and International Law. Cambridge: Kluwer Law International.
  • Hoecker, Beate (ed.). 1998. Politische Partizipation von Frauen in Europa. Opladen: Leske and Budrich.
  • Kolinsky, Eva. 1998. ‘Women and Politics in Western Germany.’ Rueschmeyer, Marilyn (ed.) Women in the Politics of Post Communist Eastern Europe. Armonk: M. E. Sharpe, Inc. pp. 64-88.
  • Rueschmeyer, Marilyn. 1998. ‘Women in the Politics of Eastern Germany: The Dilemmas of Unification.’ Rueschmeyer, Marilyn (ed.) Women in the Politics of Postcommunist Eastern Europe. Armonk: M. E. Sharpe, Inc. pp. 89-115.
  • Wettig-Danielmeier, I. (ed.). 1997. Greift die Quote? Cologne: Stadtwege-Verlag.
  • Hoecker, Beate. 1996. Innerparteiliche Frauenförderung in Grossbritannien und Deutschland. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press
  • Haug, Frigga. 1995. ‘The Quota Demand and Feminist Politics.’ New Left Review 209. pp. 136-145.
  • Hoecker, Beate. 1994.’The German Electoral System- A Barrier to Women?’ Rule, Wilma and Joseph Zimmerman (eds.) Electoral Systems in Comparative Perspective: Their Impact on Women and Minorities. Westport: Praeger.
  • Rössler, B. (ed.). 1993. Quotierung und Gerechtigkeit: Eine moralphilosophische Kontroverse. Frankfurt am Main: Campus.
  • Kolinsky, Eva. 1991. ‘Political participation and parliamentary careers: women’s quotas in West Germany.’ West European Politics 14, no. 1. pp. 56-72.
  • Lang, R. 1989. Frauenquoten: Der einen Freud, des anderen Leid. Bonn: J. H. W. Dietz Nachf.
  • German Parliament website,

Other Links

Inter-Parliamentary Union.

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliament in 2015: The year in review”:

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliament: 20 years in review”:

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliaments: World and Regional Averages”:

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliaments: World Classification ”:

Women's Environment and Development Organization,

Online Women in Politics,

Note: The sources and additional reading indicated above are mostly only available in English. We welcome recommendations of additional sources in other languages.



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