Gender Quotas Database

Resources

France

See country page for more information.

 

  • Baudino, C. 2005. ‘Gendering the republican system: debates on women’s political representation in France’, in Lovenduski, J. et al (eds) State Feminism and Political Representation, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 85-105.
  • Bird, K. 2003. ‘Who are the Women, Where are the Women, and What Difference
    Can They Make? Effect of Gender Parity in the French Municipal Elections’, French Politics, 1, 1: 5–38.
  • Bird, Karen. 2003. ‘Who are the women? Where are the women? And what difference can they make? Effects of gender parity in French municipal elections,’ French Politics, 1. pp. 5-38.
  • Green, M. ‘La Parité – To Be or Not to Be?’, paper presented and the European Consortium of Politics Research, Joint Sessions of Workshops, Edinburgh, March–April 2003.
  • Jenson, Jane & Valiente, Celia. 2003. Comparing Two Movements for Gender Parity: France and Spain, in Banaszak A. L., Beckwith K., D. Rucht (eds.) Women's Movements Facing the Reconfigured State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Murray, R. 2003. Was the low number of women elected to France’s National Assembly in 2002 indicative of the failure of parity as a policy?, MRes Dissertation, London: Birkbeck College.
  • Bird, Karen. 2002. ‘Does parity work? Results from French elections,’ Feminist Studies 28:3. pp. 691-698.
  • Opello, Katherine A. R. 2002. Ideas and Elections: Explaining the Timing and Nature of the French Socialist Party’s Gender-Based Quota. Ph.D. Diss., New York University.
  • Sineau, M. 2002. ‘Institutionnalisation de la parité: l’expérience francaise’, in J. Ballington and M.J. Protais (eds) Les femmes au parlement: Au-dela du nombre, Stockholm: International IDEA, pp. 121–32.
  • Sineau, Mariette.2002a. ‘La Parité in Politics: From a Radial Idea to a Consensual Reform’ Isabelle de Courtivron. Beyond French Feminisms. Debates on Women, Politics and Culture in France, 1980-2001. New York and London: Palgrave/St. Martin Press.
  • Agacinski, Sylviane. 2001. Trans. Lisa Walsh. Parity of the sexes. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Gaspard, Françoise. 2001. ‘The French Parity Movement.’ Jytte Klausen and Charles S. Meier (eds.). Has Liberalism Failed Women? Assuring Equal Representation in Europa and the United States. New York: Palgrave.
  • Giraud, Isabelle and Jane Jenson. 2001. ‘Constitutionalizing Equal Access: High Hopes, Dashed Hopes?’ Jytte Klausen and Charles S. Meier (eds.). Has Liberalism Failed Women? Assuring Equal Representation in Europa and the United States. New York: Palgrave.
  • Lenoir, Noëlle. 2001. ‘The Representation of Women in Politics: From Quotas to Parity in Elections.’ International and Comparative Law Quarterly 50, no. 2. pp. 217-247.
    Lipietz, Alain. 1994. ‘Parité au masculin.’ Nouvelles questions féministes 15, no. 4. pp. 45-64.
  • Sgier, Lea. 2001. ‘Analysing Gender Quota Policies: France and Switzerland.’ Paper presented at the ECPR General Conference, University of Kent at Canterbury, Kent, UK, September 6-8.
  • Sineau, Mariette. 2001. Profession: Femme Politique. Sexe et pouvouir sous la Cinquième République. Paris: Presses de Sciences Politique.
  • Allwood, Gill and Khursheen Wadia. 2000. Women and Politics in France 1958-2000. New York: Routledge.
  • Jennings, J. 2000. ‘Citizenship, Republicanism and Multiculturalism in Contemporary France’, British Journal of Political Science, 30: 575–98.
  • Lovecy, Jill. 2000. ‘ 'Citoyennes à part entière’? The constitutionalization of gendered citizenship in France and the parity reforms of 1999-2000.’ Government and opposition 35, no. 4. pp. 439-462.
  • Siim, Birte. 2000. Gender and Citizenship: Politics and Agency in France, Britain, and Denmark. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Amar, Micheline (ed.). 1999. Le Piège de la parité: Arguments pour un débat. Paris: Hachette Littératures.
  • Haase-Dubosc, Danielle. 1999. ‘Sexual Difference and Politics in France Today.’ Feminist Studies. 25, no. 1. pp. 183-210.
  • Wisler, Dominique. 1999. ‘Parité politique: la diffusion d’un principe’. Swiss Political Science Review, 5:1, pp. 110-114. http://www.spsr.ch/Debates/QUOT/QUOT3.pdf
  • Gaspard, Françoise. 1998. ‘Parity: Why Not?’ Differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies. 9, no. 2. pp. 93-104.
  • Louis, Marie-Victoire. 1998. Trans. Jennifer Curtiss Gage. ‘Introduction: 'Actualité de la parité.’’ differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies 9, no. 2. pp. 106-109.
  • Martin, Jacqueline (ed.). 1998. La Parité: Enjeux et mise en oeuvre.Toulouse: Presses Universitaires du Mirail.
  • Mossuz-Lavau, Janine. 1998a. Femmes/hommes pour la parité. Paris: Presses de Sciences Po.
  • Mossuz-Lavau, Janine. 1998b. ‘La parité à la française.’ Swiss Political Science Review: 4:2, pp. 137-144. http://www.spsr.ch/Debates/QUOT/QUOT1.pdf
  • Praud, Jocelyne. 1998. ‘La seconde vague féministe et la féminisation du Parti socialiste français et du Parti québécois.’ Politique et sociétés 17, no. 1-2. pp.  71-90.
  • Scott, Joan Wallach. 1998. ‘'La Querelle des Femmes’ in the Late Twentieth Century.’ differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies 9, no. 2. pp.  70-92.
  • Favoreu, Louis. 1997. ‘Principio de igualdad y representación política de las mujeres. Cuotas, paridad y Constitución.’ Revista español de derecho constitucional. 17, no. 50. pp. 13-28.
  • Hochedez, Daniel and Cécile Maurice. 1997. ‘Règles et réalités européenes.’ Pouvoirs- revue franc. D’études constitutionnelles et politiques. pp. 77-90.
  • Majnoni d’Intignano, Béatrice. 1997. ‘Changer de stratégie?’ Pouvoirs – revue française d’études constitutionelles et politiques 21, no. 82. pp.  105-114.
  • Badinter, E. 1996. ‘Non aux quotas de femmes’, Le Monde, 12 June.
  • Le Doeuff, Michèle. 1995. ‘Problèmes d'investiture (De la parité, etc).’ (Investiture Issues (Parity, etc.). Nouvelles questions féministes. 16, no. 2. pp. 5-80.
  • Nouvelles questions féministes: Le parité ‘contre’. 1995: 16, no. 2.
  • Ozouf, M. 1995. Les mots des femmes: Essai sur la singularité française, Paris: Fayard.
  • Sineau, Mariette. 1995. ‘Parité et principe d’égalité: le débat français’. Ephésia (Collective ed.) La place des femmes: les enjeux de l’identité et de l’égalité au regard des sciences sociales. Paris: La Découverte.  pp. 518-523
  • Trat, Josette. 1995. ‘La loi pour la parité: une solution en trompe-l'oeil.’ Nouvelles questions féministes 16, no. 2. pp. 129-139.
  • Varikas, Eleni. 1995. ‘Une répresentation en tant que femme? Réflexions critiques sur la demande de la parité des sexes.’ Nouvelles questions féministes 16, no. 2. pp.  81-127.
  • Gaspard, Françoise. 1994. ‘De la parité: genèse d'un concept, naissance d'un mouvement.’ Nouvelles questions féministes. 15, no. 4. pp. 29-44.
  • Henry, Natacha. 1994. ‘Gender parity in French politics.’ Contemporary review. 265. pp. 86-89.
  • Nouvelles questions féministes: Le parité ‘pour’. 1994: 15, no. 4.
  • Viennot, Éliane. 1994. ‘Parité: les féministes entre défis politiques et révolution culturelle.’ Nouvelles questions féministes 15, no. 4. pp.  65-89.
  • Appleton, Andrew and Amy G. Mazur. 1993. ‘Transformation or Modernization: the Rhetoric and Reality of Gender and Party Politics in France.’ Lovenduski, J. and P. Norris (eds). Gender and Party Politics. pp. 86-112.
  • Gaspard, Françoise, Claude Servan-Schreiber, and Anne Le Gall. 1992. Au pouvoir, citoyennes!: Liberté, égalité, parité. Paris: Éditions du Seuil.
  • French Parliament website, http://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/

Other Links

Inter-Parliamentary Union. http://www.ipu.org/

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliament in 2015: The year in review”: http://www.ipu.org/pdf/publications/WIP2015-e.pdf

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliament: 20 years in review”: http://www.ipu.org/pdf/publications/WIP20Y-en.pdf

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliaments: World and Regional Averages”: http://www.ipu.org/wmn-e/world.htm

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliaments: World Classification ”: http://www.ipu.org/wmn-e/classif.htm

Women's Environment and Development Organization, www.wedo.org

Online Women in Politics, www.onlinewomeninpolitics.org

Note: The sources and additional reading indicated above are mostly only available in English. We welcome recommendations of additional sources in other languages.

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