Gender Quotas Database

Resources

Belgium

See country page for more information.

 

  • Meier, P. 2005. ‘The Belgian paradox: inclusion and exclusion of gender issues’, in Lovenduski, J. et al (eds) State Feminism and Political Representation, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 41-61.
  • Meier, Petra. 2004. Antitrustwetgeving of aanfluiting van de democratie: hoe Vlaamse politici denken over genderquota. Wetenschappelijke monografie 12. Brussel: Ministerie van de Vlaamse Gemeenschap.
  • Meier, Petra. 2004. De kracht van de definitie. Quotawetten in Argentinië, België en Frankrijk vergeleken, Res Publica 46(1): 80-100.
  • Meier, Petra. 2004. ‘The Mutual Contagion Effect of Legal and Party Quotas: A Belgian Perspective’, Party Politics, 10, 5: 583–600.
  • Meier, Petra. 2003. Het ligt niet aan de quota: de opmars van vrouwen in de Kamer, Samenleving & Politiek 10(8), 40-48.
  • Meier, Petra. 2003. Nog niet voltooid of gewoon discriminerend? Groepsvertegenwoordiging in termen van taal en sekse, Tijdschrift voor Sociologie 23(2-3), 189-208.
  • Meier, Petra. 2003. Discrimination positive ou discrimination persistente? In: M. Martiniello & A. Rea (eds.) Affirmative action: des discours, des politiques et des pratiques en débat. Louvain-la-Neuve & Liège: Academia-Bruylant & Presses de l'Ulg, 231-252.
  • Mateo Diaz, Mercedes. 2002. ‘Do quotas matter? Positive Actions in the Belgian Parliament.’ Res Publica. 44, no. 1. pp. 49-72.
  • Meier, Petra. 2002. Tussen wens en werkelijkheid: reële en mogelijke impact van quotawetten op kieslijsten. Wetenschappelijke monografie 9. Brussel: Ministerie van de Vlaamse Gemeenschap.
  • Carton, Ann. 2001. ‘The General Elections in Belgium in June 1999: A Real Breakthrough for Women Politicians?’ European Journal of Women’s Studies. 8, no. 1. pp. 127-135.
  • Caul, Miki. 2001. ‘Political Parties and the Adoption of Candidate Gender Quotas: A Cross National Analysis’. Journal of Politics. 63(4). pp. 1214-1229
  • Marques-Pereira, Bérengère and Gigante, Catherine. 2001. ‘La représentation politique des femmes: Des quotas à la parité?’ Courrier hebdomadaire du Centre de recherche et d’information sociopolitique, pp. 5-40.
  • Meier, Petra. 2001. ‘Aandacht voor de man-vrouw verhouding in de locale politiek.’ Dexia. 55, no. 216. pp. 49-62.
  • Marques-Pereira, Bérengère. 2000. Political Representation in Belgium: Women's Citizenship, Change and Continuation in Parliamentary Debates. Aalborg: Research Programme on Gender, Empowerment and Politics.
  • Marques-Pereira, B. ‘Quotas and parity in Belgium within a European framework’, paper presented at the International Political Science Association World Congress, Quebec, Canada, August 2000.
  • Meier, Petra. 2000a. ‘The Evidence of Being Present: Guarantees of Representation and the Belgian Example’, Acta Politica: International Journal of Political Science, 35, no.1. pp. 64-85.
  • Meier, Petra. 2000b. ‘From Theory to Practice and Back Again: Gender Quota and the Politics of Presence in Belgium.’ Michael Saward (ed.). Democratic Innovation: Deliberation, representation and association. New York: Routledge. pp. 106-116.
  • Meier, Petra. 2000c. ‘Gender as part of Political Identity? Gender Quotas in Parliament, Government and Advisory Committees in Belgium.’ Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association.
  • Amazone. 1999. ‘Wat doet de wet voor een beter gender-evenwicht in de politiek?’ Vrouwenraad. 2. pp. 30-41.
  • Coenen, Marie-Thérèse. 1999. De l'égalité à la parité: Le difficile accès des femmes à la citoyenneté (From equality to parity: The difficult access of women to citizenship). Brussels: Éditions Labor.
  • Meier, Petra. 1998. ‘Vrouwwriendelijke lijsten in 1999?’ Samenleving en Politiek. 5, no. 9. pp. 3-10.
  • Meier, Petra. 1999. ‘Nécessaire mais insuffisante: La loi belge sur le système des quotas’ (Necessary but Insufficient: The Belgian law on the quota system). Paloma Saavedra (ed). Vers une démocratie paritaire. Analyse et revision des lois électorales en vigeur (Towards Parity Democracy. Analysis and revision of existing electoral laws), Madrid: CELEM. pp. 197-218.
  • Peirens, Kirsten. 1999. ‘Vrouwelijke parlementsleden na de verkiezingen van 13 juni 1999: Analyse van de toegang tot een parlementair mandaat.’ Res Publica 41, no. 4. pp. 481-498.
  • Verdussen, Marc. 1999. ‘La participation des femmes aux élections en Belgique.’ Revue française de droit constitutionnel. 10, no. 36. pp. 799-809.
  • Verzele, Valérie and Carine Joly. 1999. La representation des femmes en politique après les elections du 13 juin 1999 (Women’s political representation after the 13 June 1999 elections). Brussels: CRISP.
  • Craeghs, Jo and Wilfried Dewachter. 1998. Vrouwen verkozen. Een eerste onderzoek naar de betekenis van de evenredige vertegenwoordiging, de hoofdvakstem en plaatsvervanging. Leuven: KUL.
  • Gubin, Éliane and Leen Van Molle (eds) 1998. Femmes et politique en Belgique (Women and politics in Belgium). Brussels: Racine.
  • Marques-Pereira, Bérengère. 1998. La citoyenneté politique des femmes (Women’s political citizenship). Brussels: CRISP.
  • Marques-Pereira, Bérengère. 1998. ‘La parité: les termes du débat’ (Parity: The Terms of Debate). Hedwige Peemans Poullet (ed.). La démocratie à l’épreuve du féminisme (Democracy tested by feminism).Brussels: Université des Femmes. pp. 175-191.
  • Paye, Olivier. 1998. ‘La loi de 1994 promouvant la representation des femmes en politique: La parité par les quotas?’ (The 1994 Law Promoting Women’s Political Representation: Parity by Quotas?). Hedwige Peemans Poullet (ed.). La démocratie à l’épreuve du féminisme (Democracy Tested by Feminism). Brussels: Université des Femmes. pp. 193-220.
  • Van Molle, Leen and Eliane Gubin. 1998. Vrouw en politiek in België. Tielt: Lannoo.
  • Woodward, Alison. 1998. ‘Politische Partizipation von Frauen in Belgien: Die gespaltene Frau.’ Beate Hoecker (ed). Handbuch Politische Partizipation von Frauen in Europa, Oplande: Leske und Budrich. pp. 17-39.
  • Inter-Parliamentary Union. 1997. Participation of Women in Political Life. Geneva: Inter-Parliamentary Union.
  • Joly, Carinne. 1997. Parité ou quotas: quelle solution pour une plus grande representation des femmes en politique? (Parity or quotas: what solution for a greater representation of women in politics?). Brussels: Institut de Formation de l’Administration fédérale.
  • Paye, Olivier. 1997. ‘Féminiser le politique: recitoyennisation ou tribalisation? Une réponse du monde politique belge’ (Feminizing Politics: Recitizenization or tribalization? A reponse to the Belgian political world). Sextant. 7. pp. 139-161.
  • Marques-Pereira, Bérengère. 1996. ‘Citoyenneté et representation. Quelques repères utiles à l’analyse comparative.’ (Citizenship and Representation: Some useful benchmarks from comparative analysis). Alisa del Re and Jacqueline Heinen (eds.). Quelle citoyenneté pour les femmes? La crise des Etats-providence et de la representation politique en Europe (What Citizenship for
  • Carton, Ann. 1995. ‘Paritaire democratie: een definitieve stap vooruit.’ Nederlandstalige Vrouwenraad (ed.). Jaarboek van de vrouw. Leuven: Acco. pp. 71-89
  • Uyttendaele, Mark and Jérôme Sohier. 1995. ‘Les quotas féminins en droit electoral ou les paradoxes de l’égalité’ (Quotas for women in electoral legislation or the paradoxes of equality). Journal des tribunaux. 114. pp. 249-256.
  • Marques-Pereira, Bérengère. 1994. ‘Le genre de la representation’ (The Gender of Representation). Manuel de resources women’s studies. Brussels: ULB. pp. 81-88.
  • Leye, Els. 1992. ‘Vrouwen in de politieke besluitvorming.’ Nederlandstalige Vrouwenraad (ed.). Jaarboek van de vrouw. Leuven: Acco. pp. 67-77.
  • Belgian Federal Parliament website, http://www.fed-parl.be/

Other Links

Inter-Parliamentary Union. http://www.ipu.org/

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliament in 2015: The year in review”: http://www.ipu.org/pdf/publications/WIP2015-e.pdf

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliament: 20 years in review”: http://www.ipu.org/pdf/publications/WIP20Y-en.pdf

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliaments: World and Regional Averages”: http://www.ipu.org/wmn-e/world.htm

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliaments: World Classification ”: http://www.ipu.org/wmn-e/classif.htm

Women's Environment and Development Organization, www.wedo.org

Online Women in Politics, www.onlinewomeninpolitics.org

Note: The sources and additional reading indicated above are mostly only available in English. We welcome recommendations of additional sources in other languages.

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