Gender Quotas Database



See country page for more information.


  • Bangladesh Election Commission,
  • Bangladesh Parliament website,
  • Frankl, E. 2004. ‘Quota as Empowerment. The Use of Reserved Seats in Union Parishad as an Instrument for Women’s Political Empowerment in Bangladesh’, The Research Program on Gender Quotas . Working Paper Series 2004: 3, Stockholm University: Department of Political Science.
  • Ahmed, K.U. ‘Women and Politics in Bangladesh’, paper prepared for the International Conference on Women and Politics in Asia, Halmstad, June 2003.
  • Aminuzzaman, S.M. ‘Strengthening the UP: Problems and Prospects’, paper presented in a workshop on Local Government and Reforms: Issues and Prospects, Dhaka, April 2003.
  • Chowdhury, N. 2003. ‘Bangladesh’s Experience – Dependence and Marginality in Politics’, in International IDEA The Implementation of Quotas: Asian Experiences Quota Workshop Report Series no. 1, Stockholm: International IDEA, pp. 50–8.
  • Mahtab, N. ‘Women in Urban Local Governance: A Bangladesh Case Study’, paper presented at the International conference on Women’s Quotas in Urban Local Governance: A Cross-national Comparison. New Delhi, February 2003.
  • Thörlind, R. 2003. Development, Decentralization and Democracy. Exploring Social Capital and Politicization in the Bengal Region, Dhaka: Pathak Shamabesh Book.
  • Chowdhury, Najma. 2002. ‘The Implementation of Quotas: Bangladesh Experience - Dependence and Marginality in Politics.’ Paper presented at IDEA's regional workshop on the Implementation of Quotas: Asian Experiences. Jakarta, Indonesia.
  • Democracywatch 2002. Assessing Training Program for the Female Members of the UP, Dhaka: Democracywatch.
  • Siddiqui, T. ‘Effective Participation of Women and Strengthening of Local Government in Bangladesh’, paper presented at the seminar: Good Governance and Local Government: Changes and Challenges, Dhaka, December 2002.
  • Chowdhury, Najma. 2001. ‘The Politics of Implementing Women's Rights in Bangladesh.’ Jane H. Bayes & Neyereh Tohidi (eds.). Globalization, Gender, and Religion: The Politics of Women's Rights in Catholic and Muslim Countries. New York: Palgrave.
  • Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. 2000. Women in Asia and the Pacific: High-level Intergovernmental Meeting to Review Regional Implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action. 26-29 October 1999: Proceedings. New York: United Nations.
  • World Food Programme 1999. Elected Woman Members of UP. A Socio-Economic Study, Dhaka: World Food Programme.
  • Nathan, I. 1998. When Poor People Participate. A Case Study of a Local Government election in a Locality of Rural Bangladesh, Aarhus: Politica.
  • Goetz, A. 1996. ‘Dis/organizing gender: women development agents in the state and NGO poverty – reduction programmes in Bangladesh’, in S.M. Rai (ed.) Women and the State: International Perspectives, London: Taylor and Francis, pp. 118–42.
  • Nelson, B. & N. Chowdhury (ed.). 1994.  Women and Politics Worldwide. New Haven & London: Yale University Press.
  • Kabeer, N. 1988. ‘Subordination and struggle: Women in Bangladesh’, New Left Review, 168: 95–121.

Other Links

Inter-Parliamentary Union.

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliament in 2015: The year in review”:

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliament: 20 years in review”:

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliaments: World and Regional Averages”:

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliaments: World Classification ”:

Women's Environment and Development Organization,

Online Women in Politics,

Note: The sources and additional reading indicated above are mostly only available in English. We welcome recommendations of additional sources in other languages.



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