Gender Quotas Database


South Africa

See country page for more information.


  • Hassim, Shireen. 2003. ‘Representation, Participation and Democratic Effectiveness: Feminist Challenges to Representative Democracy in South Africa’, in Anne Marie Goetz and Shireen Hassim (eds) No Shortcuts to Power: African Women in Politics. London: Zed Books.
  • Ballington, J. 2002. ‘Political Parties, Gender Equality and Elections in South Africa’, in Glenda Fick, Sheila Meintjes and Mary Simons (eds), One Woman One Vote: The Gender Politics of South African Elections. EISA: Johannesburg.
  • Molokomme 2000. ‘Building Inclusiveness in SADC's Democratic Systems: The Case of Women's Representation in Leadership Positions’, in Report of theSADC Elections Forum, June 2001, EISA.
  • Yoon, M.Y. 2001. ‘Democratization and Women's Legislative Representation in Sub-Saharan Africa’ , in Democratization 8, no. 2. p. 169-190.
  • Kethusegile, B. et al. 2000. Beyond Inequalities: Women in Southern Africa. Harare: SARDC.
  • Khan, F. 2000. ‘Politics-South Africa: Number of Women Candidates Increases’, Interpress Service, December 1.
  • Longwe, S. H. 2000. ‘Towards Realistic Strategies for Women's Political Empowerment in Africa’, in Women and Leadership. Caroline Sweetman (ed.). Oxford: Oxfam. pp. 24-30.
  • Lowe-Morna, C. 2000. ‘Strategies for Increasing Women's Participation in Politics’, paper presented to the Fifth Meeting of Commonwealth Ministers Responsible for Women's Affairs.
  • Msimang, S. 2000. ‘Affirmative Action in the New South Africa: The Politics of Representation, Law and Equity’, Women in Action, no. 1. p. 36.
  • Ballington, J. 1999. The Participation of Women in South Africa's First Democratic Election: Lessons From the Past and Recommendations for the Future. Auckland Park: Electoral Institute of South Africa (occasional paper).
  • Ballington, J. 1998. ‘Women's Parliamentary Representation: The Effects of List PR’, Politikon, Vol. 25, No. 2, December.
  • Inter-Parliamentary Union. 1997. Democracy Still in the Making: A World Comparative Study. Geneva: Inter-Parliamentary Union.
  • Mutume, G. 1997. ‘South Africa-Human Rights: Quotas for Women Under Scrutiny’, Interpress Service, September 26.
  • South Africa Parliament website,

Other Links

Inter-Parliamentary Union.

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliament in 2015: The year in review”:

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliament: 20 years in review”:

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliaments: World and Regional Averages”:

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliaments: World Classification ”:

Women's Environment and Development Organization,

Online Women in Politics,

Note: The sources and additional reading indicated above are mostly only available in English. We welcome recommendations of additional sources in other languages.



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