Gender Quotas Database



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  • Global Village Space, 2018. "Is Pakistan's Gender Quota in Parliament Showing Results?", Published 4 July 2018, Accessed 26 September.
  • Pattan Development Organisation 2004. Voices of Women Councilors, Islamabad: Pattan Development Organisation.
  • Graff, I. ‘Women’s Representation in Pakistani Politics – the Quota Systems under the Musharraf Regime’, paper presented at the International Conference on Women and Politics in Asia, Halmstad, June 2003.
  • Reyes, S.L. 2003. ‘Quotas in Pakistan: A Case Study’, in International IDEA The Implementation of Quotas: Asian Experiences. Quota Workshop Report Series no. 1, Stockholm: International IDEA, pp. 42–7.
  • Ali, Rasheed. 2002. ‘A Distant Dream.’ Weekly Independent. September 26.
  • Bari, Farzana. 2002. Women's Representation in Legislatures.The Way Forward. Islamabad: Ministry of Women and Develoment.
  • Reyes, Socorro L. 2002. ‘Quotas in Pakistan: A Case Study.’ Paper presented at IDEA Regional Workshop on the Implementation of Quotas: Asian Experiences. Jakarta, Indonesia, September 2002.
  • Bari, S. and Khan, B.H. 2001. Local Government Elections 2001. Phase III, IV & V, Islamabad: Pattan Development Organization.
  • Ali, S. 2000. ‘Law, Islam and the Women’s Movement in Pakistan’, in S.M. Rai (ed.) International Perspectives on Gender and Democratisation, Basingstoke: Macmillan, pp. 41–63.
  • Ali, Shaheen Sardar. 2000. ‘Law, Islam and the Women's Movement in Pakistan.’ Shirin M. Rai (ed.). International Perspectives on Gender and Democratisation. New York: St. Martin's Press. pp. 41-63.
  • Afzal, Nabeela. 1999. Women and Parliament in Pakistan. 1947-1977. Lahore: Pakistan Study Centre, University of the Punjab.
  • Ikramullah, Shaista Suhrawardy. 1998. From Purdah to Parliament. Karachi: Oxford University Press.
  • Shaheed, Farida, Asma Zia, and Sohail Warraich. 1998. Women in Politics: Participation and Representation in Pakistan with update 1993-1997. Lahore: Shirkat Gah.
  • Shirkat Gah Women's Resource Centre. 1998. Shaping Women's Lives: Laws, Practices, & Strategies in Pakistan. Report.
  • Report of The Commission of Inquiry for Women: Pakistan. 1997. Islamabad: Stationery, Farms, and Publications Depot.
  • Sarwar, Beena. 1997. ‘Pakistan: Feuding Politicians Keep Women Out of Parliament.’ Interpress Service, June 13.
  • Yadav, Ritu. 1997. ‘More Than Just a Token.’ News India, May 15.
  • Islam, Muhammad Nazrul. 1990. Pakistan: A Study in National Integration. Lahore: Vanguard Books.
  • Mumtaz, Khawar and Farida Shaheed. 1987. Women of Pakistan: Two Steps Forward, One Step Back? Lahore: Vanguard Books.
  • Pakistan Election Commission,
  • Pakistan Parliament website,

Other Links

Inter-Parliamentary Union.

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliament in 2015: The year in review”:

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliament: 20 years in review”:

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliaments: World and Regional Averages”:

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliaments: World Classification ”:

Women's Environment and Development Organization,

Online Women in Politics,

Note: The sources and additional reading indicated above are mostly only available in English. We welcome recommendations of additional sources in other languages.



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