Gender Quotas Database



See country page for more information.


  • Reilly, B. and Reyes, S. 2016. 'Zipper System: How to get more women elected', Rappler. (online).
  • Rappler. 2016. '46 Groups Proclaimed as Party list winners'. Rappler. (Online).
  • Atienza, Maria Ela L. 2000. ‘Gender and Local Governance in the Philippines.’ Rose J. Lee and Cal Clark (eds.). Democracy & the Status of Women in East Asia. Boulder: Lynne Rienner. pp. 77-90
  • UNIFEM. 2000. Progress of the World's Women 2000. New York: United Nations.
  • Inter-Parliamentary Union. 1999. Participation of Women in Political Life: An assessment of developments in national parliaments, political parties, governments and the Inter-Parliamentary Union, five years after the Fourth World Conference on Women. Geneva: Inter-Parliamentary Union.
  • Mission, Gina. 1998. ‘Their Own Worst Enemies: Gender Politics in the Philippines.’ WIN Magazine. April.
  • Aguilar, C. T. 1997. ‘Challenges to Women Politicians in a Democratized Asian Society.’ Paper presented at The 17th World Congress of the International Political Science Association. Seoul.
  • Calimoso, Eloy. 1997. Cuberdyaryo, April 12.
  • Philippine Parliament website,

Other Links

Inter-Parliamentary Union.

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliament in 2015: The year in review”:

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliament: 20 years in review”:

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliaments: World and Regional Averages”:

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliaments: World Classification ”:

Women's Environment and Development Organization,

Online Women in Politics,

Note: The sources and additional reading indicated above are mostly only available in English. We welcome recommendations of additional sources in other languages.



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