Gender Quotas Database



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  • Schmidt, G and Araújo, C. ‘The Devil’s in the Details: Open List Voting and Gender Quotas in Brazil and Peru’, paper presented at the XXV International Congress of Latin American Studies Association, Las Vegas, October 2004.
  • Schmidt, Gregory. 2003b. Las Mujeres y el Presidente: Fujimori y La Equidad de Gnero? Lima: Manuela Ramos.
  • Schmidt, Gregory. 2003a. Cuotas efectivas, Magnitud Relativa del Partido y el xito de las Candidatas Mujeres: Una Evaluacin Comparativa de las Elecciones Municipales Peruanas. Lima: Manuela Ramos.
  • Schmidt, G. 2003. ‘Unanticipated Successes: Lessons from Peru’s Experience with Gender Quotas in Majoritarian Closed List and Open List PR Systems’, in International IDEA The Implementation of Quotas: Latin American Experiences, Quota Workshop Report Series no. 2, Stockholm: International IDEA, pp. 120–33.
  • Htun, Mala N. 2002. ‘Mujeres y poder político en Latinoamérica,’ in International IDEA, Mujeres en el Parlamento. Más allá de los números, Stockholm: International IDEA, pp. 19-44.
  • Htun, Mala N. and Mark P. Jones. 2002. ‘Engendering the Right to Participate in Decision-Making: Electoral Quotas and Women's Leadership in Latin America.’ Nikki Craske and Maxine Molyneux(ed.) Gender and the Politics of Rights and Democracy in Latin America. New York: Palgrave. pp. 32-56.
  • Peschard, Jacqueline. 2002. ‘El sistema de cuotas en América Latina. Panorama general,’ in International IDEA. Mujeres en el Parlamento. Más allá de los números. Stockholm: International IDEA, pp. 173-186.
  • Jimenez Polanco, Jacqueline. 2001. ‘La représentation politique des femmes en Amérique Latine: une analyse comparée’ (Women's political representation in Latin America: a comparative analysis). Bérengère Marques-Pereira and Patricio Nolasco (ed.) La représentation politique des femmes en Amérique Latine(Women's political representation in Latin America). Brussels: L'Harmattan. pp. 27-81.
  • Lama, Abraham. 2001. ‘Politics-Peru: Efforts to Elect More Women Founder.’ Interpress Service, September 13.
  • Women's Leadership Conference of the Americas. 2001. Women and Power in the Americas: A Report Card. Washington: Women's Leadership Conference of the Americas.
  • United States Agency for International Development. 2000. The USAID Commitment. Report.
  • Blondet, Cecilia. 1999. Las mujeres y la política en la década de Fujimori. Working Paper no. 109. Instituto de Estudios Peruanos.
  • Barrig, Maruja. 1998. ‘Female Leadership, Violence, and Citizenship in Peru’. Jaquette, Jane and Wolchik, Sharon (eds.) Women and Democracy. Latin America and Central and Eastern Europe. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. pp.104-124.
  • Blondet, Cecilia. 1998. ‘El poder político en la mira de las mujeres.’ In Poder politico con perfume de mujer. Las cuotas en el Perú. Lima: Movimiento Manuela Ramos/ Instituto de Estudios Peruanos.
  • Hosken, Fran. 1998. ‘IWRAW Report: Peru.’ Women's International Network (WIN News) 24, no. 4. pp. 72.
  • Htun, Mala N. 1998. Women's Political Participation, Representation and Leadership in Latin America. Issue Brief, Women's Leadership Conference of the Americas.
  • Poder político con perfume de mujer: Las cuotas en el Perú(Political power with the scent of a woman: Quotas in Peru). 1998. Lima: Movimiento Manuela Ramos and Instituto de Estudios Peruanos.
  • Villaneuva, Victoria and Rocío Palomino. 1998. ‘Perú: Acceso de la mujer al poder y a instancias de toma de decisiones.’ Silvia Vega Ugalde (ed.).  Acceso de las mujeres a la toma de decisiones en los países andinos. Quito: Coalición Política de Mujeres Andinas. pp. 79-107.
  • Gutierrez, Estrella. 1997. ‘Women-Latam: Andean Women Flex Their Political Muscle.’ Interpress Service, September 23.
  • Lama, Abraham. 1997a. ‘Peru-Rights: Women Gain in Political Representation.’ Interpress Service, November 11.
  • Lama, Abraham. 1997b. ‘Peru-Women: New Quota Law Aims at Correcting Gender Imbalance.’ Interpress Service, June 5.
  • Peru Parliament website,

Other Links

Inter-Parliamentary Union.

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliament in 2015: The year in review”:

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliament: 20 years in review”:

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliaments: World and Regional Averages”:

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliaments: World Classification ”:

Women's Environment and Development Organization,

Online Women in Politics,

Note: The sources and additional reading indicated above are mostly only available in English. We welcome recommendations of additional sources in other languages.



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