Gender Quotas Database



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  • Sundstrm, Aksel. 2008. Leaving the ‘proxy woman or politician’ dichotomy: A qualitative study of the possibilities and obstacles for elected womens participation in Indian local governance. Department of Policital Science, University of Gothenburg
  • Raman, V. 2004. Globalisation, Sustainable Development and Local Self-Government. Challenges of the 21st Century: The India Experience, New Delhi: Center for Women’s Development Studies.
  • Sharma, K. 2004. ‘From Representation to Presence: the paradox of power and powerlessness of women In PRIs’, in D. Bandyopadhyay and A. Mukherjee (ed.) New Issues in Panchayati Raj, New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company, pp. 48–66.
  • Baviskar, B.S. ‘Impact of Women’s Participation in Local Governance in Rural India’, paper presented at the Rural Network Conference, Inverness, June 2003.'s_Participation_in_Local_Governance_in_Rural_India
  • Ekatra. 2003. Women and Governance Reimagining the State, New Delhi: Ekatra.
  • Ghosh, A. 2003. ‘Women’s Reservation in Urban Local Bodies: A Perspective from Chennai Municipal Corporation Election, 2001’, Indian Journal of Gender Studies, 10, 1: 117–41.
  • Jayal, N. and Nussbaum, M. 2003. Gender and Governance An Introduction, Human Development Resource Centre, New Delhi: UNDP.
  • Mohanty, B. ‘Women’s Presence in Panchayats (Village Councils) in India: A New Challenge to Patriarchy’, paper presented at the International Conference on Women and Politics in Asia, Halmstad, June 2003.
  • Mohanty, M. and Seldon, M. 2003. ‘Reconceptualising Local Democracy Preliminary reflections on democracy, power and Resistence’, Panchayati Raj Update, 10(4), New Delhi: Institute of Social Sciences.
  • Panchayati Raj Update 2003. ‘Fact File Bihar Panchayat Election 2001’, 10(2) New Delhi: Institute of Social Sciences.
  • Raman, V. 2003. ‘The implementation of Quotas for Women: The Indian Experience’, in International IDEA The Implementation of Quotas: Asian Experiences, Quota Workshop Report Series no. 1, Stockholm: International IDEA, pp. 22–32.
  • Sharma, A. ‘Women’s Political Participation and Leadership in the Governance of Municipal Institutions in an Indian State’, paper presented at the International Conference on Women and Politics in Asia, Halmstad, June 2003.
  • Keating, Christine. 2002. ‘The Women's Reservation Bill: Disrupting the Postcolonial Sexual Contract.’ Paper presented at The Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association. Boston, MA, August 28-September 2.
  • Mathew, G. 2002. ‘Ten Years on’, The Hindu, 27 December.
  • Raman, Vasanthi. 2002. ‘The Implementation of Quotas for Women: The Indian Experience.’ IDEA, Regional Workshop on the Implementation of Quotas: Asian Experiences. Jakarta, Indonesia, September 2002.
  • Buch, N. 2001. ‘The 73rd Constitution Amendment and the Experience of Women in the New Panchayati Rai Institutions (PRIs): A Critical Evaluation’, in A. Pinto and H. Reifeld (eds) Women in Panchayati Raj, New Delhi: Indian Social Institute.
  • Raman, Vasanthi. 2001. ‘The Women's Question in Contemporary Indian Politics.’ Asian Journal of Women's Studies 7, no. 2. pp. 39.
  • Buch, N. 2000a. ‘Women’s Experience in New Panchayats: The emerging leadership of rural women’, Occasional Paper 35, Delhi: Centre for Women’s Development Studies.
  • Buch, N. 2000b. ‘Panchayats and Women’, in G. Mathew (ed.) Status of Panchayati Rai in the States and Union Terriotories of India, New Delhi: Concept.
  • Dalal, Mukesh. 2000. ‘Women's Reservation: Another Approach.’ Manushi, September: 28.
  • Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. 2000. Women in Asia and the Pacific: High-level Intergovernmental Meeting to Review Regional Implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action. 26-29 October 1999: Proceedings. New York: United Nations.
  • John, M.E. 2000. ‘Alternate Modernities? Reservations and Women’s movement in 20th Century’, India Economic and Political Weekly, 35, 43, 44: 3822
  • Menon, Nivedita. 2000. ‘Elusive ‘Woman': Feminism and Women's Reservation Bill.’ Economic and Political Weekly. October 28, 2000. pp. 3835-3844.
  • Rai, S.M. and Sharma, K. 2000. ‘Democratising the Indian Parliament: the ‘Reservation for Women' Debate.’ In Shirin M. Rai (ed.). International Perspectives on Gender and Democratisation. New York: St. Martin's Press, Basingstoke: Macmillan. pp. 149-165.
  • Sinha, Niroj, (ed.) 2000. Women in Indian Politics: Empowerment of Women through Political Participation. New Delhi: Gyan Publishing House.
  • Jenkins, Laura Dudley. 1999. ‘Competing Inequalities: The Struggle Over Reserved Seats for Women in India.’ International Review of Social History. 44: 53-75. (supplement 7, Complicating Categories: Gender, Class, Race and Ethnicity, Eileen Boris and Angelique Janssens (eds.)
  • John, Mary E. 1999. ‘Democracy, Patriarchies and Reservations for Women: A Note.’ Indian Journal of Gender Studies 6. No. 1. January-June.
  • Kishwar, Madhu. 1999. Off the Beaten Track: Rethinking Gender Justice for Indian Women. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
  • Mohanty, B. 1999. ‘Panchayat Raj Institutions and Women’, in B. Ray and A. Basu (eds) From Independence Towards Freedom, Indian Women since 1947, New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
  • Rai, Shirin M. 1999. ‘Democratic Institutions, Political Representation and Women's Empowerment: The Quota Debate in India.’ Democratization. 6. No. 3, pp. 84-99.
  • Raman, Vasanthi. 1999. ‘Women's Reservation and Democratisation: An Alternative Perspective.’ Economic and Political Weekly. December 11, 1999. Bombay. pp. 3494-3495,
  • Sarkar, L. & Majumdar, V. 1999. ‘Note of Dissent’. Indian Journal of Gender Studies. Vol. 6, No 1, January-June.
  • Datta, B. (ed.) 1998. And Who Will Make the Chapatis? A Study of All-Women Panchayats in Maharashtra, Calcutta: Stree.
  • Hoskyns, C. and Rai, S.M. 1998. ‘Gender, Class and Representation: India and the European Union’, European Journal of Women’s Studies, 5, 3–4: 345–65.
  • Kasturi, Leela. 1998. ‘Greater Political Representation for Women: The Case of India.’ Asian Journal of Women's Studies. 4. No. 4: 9.
  • Kidwai, Sabina and Abhilasha Kumari. 1998. Crossing the Sacred Line: Women's Search for Political Power. London: Sangam Books.
  • Kishwar, Madhu. 1998. ‘Women's Reservation Bill is a Setback to Feminists.’ IndiaAbroad. July 31.
  • Mitra, Sumit and Javed Ansari. 1998. ‘Women's Bill: Ladies Seat.’ The Nation. July 20.
  • Nanivadekar, Medha. 1998. ‘Reservation for Women.’ Economic and Political Weekly. July 11.
  • Raj, R. Dev. 1998. ‘Politics-Group: Women Help Themselves to Political Pie.’ Interpress Service. January 25.
  • Haniffa, Aziz. 1997. ‘Women's Quota Called Victim of a “Male Plot”‘, IndiaAbroad. January 24.
  • Kannabiran, Vasanth and Kalpana Kannabiran. 1997. ‘From Social Action to Political Action: Women and the 81st Amendment.’ Economic and Political Weekly. February 1.
  • Misra, Neelesh. 1997. ‘Gujral inducts four Women in Expansion of Ministry.’ India Abroad, June 13.
  • Muralidharan, Sukumar. 1997. ‘A Bill in Vain.’ Frontline. January 10.
  • Nanivadekar, M. 1997a. Electoral Process in Corporation Elections: A Gender Study, Mumbai: Bharatiya Stree Shakti.
  • Nanivadekar, Medha. 1997. Empowering Women: Assessing the Policy of Reservations in Local Bodies. A Report. Mumbai:Rambhau Mhalgi Prabodhini, Publications no. 31.
  • Rai, S.M. 1997. ‘Gender and Representation: Women MPs in the Indian Parliament’, in A. Goetz (ed.) Getting Institutions Right for Women in Development, London: Zed.
  • Yadav, Ritu. 1997. ‘More Than Just A Token.’ News India. May 15.
  • Everett, Jana. 1996. ‘Reservation of Seats for Women in India: Toward the Engendering of Politics?’ Paper presented at The Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association. San Francisco, August 29-September 1.
  • Gandhi, Maneka. 1996. ‘And the One Who Differs… Maneka Gandhi on Women in Politics.’ Manushi. no. 96: 19.
  • Kaushik, Susheela. 1996. Panchayati Raj in Action: Challenges to Women's Role. New Delhi: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung.
  • Kishwar, Madhu. 1996a. ‘Out of the Zenna Dabba: Strategies for Enhancing Women's Political Representation.’ Manushi. No. 96: 22.
  • Kishwar, Madhu. 1996b. ‘Women and Politics: Beyond Quotas.’ Economic and Political Weekly. 31, no. 43. pp. 2867-2874.
  • Nath, Meenakshi. 1996. ‘Cutting Across Party Line: Women Members of Parliament Explain their Stand on Reservation Quotas.’ Manushi, no. 96, p. 15.
  • Rai, Shirin M. ‘Gender and Representation: Women in the Indian Parliament, 1991-1996.’ A. M. Goetz (ed). Getting Institutions Right for Women in Development. London: Sage.
  • Baxi, U. 1995. ‘Emancipation as Justice: Babasaheb Ambedkar’s Legacy and Vision’, in U. Baxi and B. Parekh (eds) Crisis and Change in Contemporary India, London: Sage, pp. 122–47.
  • Chatterjee, P. 1993. ‘The Nationalist Resolution of the Women’s Question’, in K. Sangari and S. Vaid (eds) Recasting Women, Essays in Colonial History, New Dehli: Kali for Women.
  • d'Lima, Hazel. 1993. ‘Participation of Women in Local Self-Government.’ In Susheela Kaushik (ed.). Women's Participation in Politics. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House. pp. 21-30.
  • Gawankar, Rohini. 1993. ‘Role of Women in Panchayati Raj.’ in . Susheela Kaushik (ed.). Women's Participation in Politics. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House. pp. 88-100.
  • Patel, Sujata. 1993. ‘Women's Participation in the Anti-Reservation Agitation in Ahmedabad, 1985: Some Issues.’ In Susheela Kaushik (ed.). Women's Participation in Politics. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House. pp. 148-155.
  • Rajput, Pam. 1993. ‘Women Leadership at the Grassroot Level in Punjab.’ Susheela Kaushik (ed.). Women's Participation in Politics. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House. pp. 31-44.
  • Sankaran, Kamala. 1993. Women in Politics: Forms and Processes. New Delhi: Har-Anand Publications.
  • Manikyamba, P. 1989. Women in Panchayati Raj Structures. New Delhi: Gian Publishing House.
  • Sarkar, S. 1983. Modern India, 1885–1947, Delhi: Macmillan India Ltd.
  • ‘Furore in Lok Sabha over Women's Quota Bill.’ The Hindu. April 15.
  • India Parliament website,
  • ‘Prime Minister Moots Special Facilities, Reservation for Women.’ The Hindu, March 9.

Other Links

Inter-Parliamentary Union.

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliament in 2015: The year in review”:

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliament: 20 years in review”:

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliaments: World and Regional Averages”:

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliaments: World Classification ”:

Women's Environment and Development Organization,

Online Women in Politics,

Note: The sources and additional reading indicated above are mostly only available in English. We welcome recommendations of additional sources in other languages.



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