Gender Quotas Database


United Kingdom

See country page for more information.


  • Lovenduski, J. 2005. ‘Party government and women’s representation debates: the UK’, in Lovenduski, J. et al (eds) State Feminism and Political Representation, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 216-238.
  • Childs, S. 2004. New Labour’s Women MP’s: Women Representing Women, London: Taylor & Francis.
  • Squires, J. 2004. ‘Gender Quotas in Britain: A Fast Track to Equality?’, The Research Program on Gender Quotas. Working Paper Series 2004: 1. Stockholm University, Department of Political Science.
  • Childs, S. 2002. ‘Concepts of Representation and the Passage of the Sex Discrimination (Election Candidates) Bill’, Journal of Legislative Studies, 8, 3: 90–108.
  • Russell, M., Mackay, F. and McAllister, L. 2002. ‘Women’s Representation in the Scottish Parliament and National Assembly for Wales: Party Dynamics for Achieving Critical Mass’, Journal of Legislative Studies, 8, 2: 49–76.
  • Breitenbach, Esther and Fiona Mackay (eds). 2001. Women and Contemporary Scottish Politics: An Anthology. Edinburgh: Polygon.
  • Norris, Pippa. 2001. ‘ Breaking the Barriers: Positive Discrimination Policies for Women’. Has Liberalism Failed Women? Assuring Equal Representation in Europe and the United States.  Jytte Klausen and Charles S. Maie (eds.). New York: Palgrave.
  • Squires, Judith and Mark Wickham-Jones. 2001. Women in Parliament: A Comparative Analysis. Equal Opportunities Commission.
  • Russell, M. 2000. Women’s Representation in UK Politics: What can be done with the
    Law?, London: The Constitution Unit.
  • Siim, Birte. 2000. Gender and Citizenship: Politics and Agency in France, Britain, and Denmark. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Henig, Simon. 1999. ‘The Labour Party and Women’s Quotas.’ Paper presented at the EPOP Conference.
  • Perrigo, Sarah. 1999. ‘Women, Gender and New Labour.’ Gerald R. Taylor (ed.) The Impact of New Labour. New York: St. Martin’s Press. pp. 162-176.
    Short, Clare. 1996. ‘Women and the Labour Party.’ Parliamentary Affairs.  49, no. 1. pp. 17-25.
  • Eagle, Maria and Joni Lovenduski. 1998. ‘High Time of High Tide for Labour Women?’ Fabian Society Pamphlet. London: Fabian Society.
  • McAllister, Ian and Donley T. Studlar. 1998. ‘Candidate gender and voting in the 1997 British General Election: Did Labour Quotas Matter?’ Journal of Legislative Studies 4, no. 3. pp. 72-91.
  • Anderson, Janet. 1997. Women as Electable Candidates: British Party Seeks Another Avenue to Affirmative Action. Parliamentarian. 78 (1) pp. 26-28
  • Hoecker, Beate. 1996. Innerparteiliche Frauenförderung in Grossbritannien und Deutschland. Zeitschrift fur Parlamentsfragen 27(4) pp. 642-657.
  • Lovenduski, Joni. 1996. ‘The Compatibility of Parity Democracy with the Constitutional and Electoral Law of the United Kingdom.’  Group of Specialists on Equality and Democracy: Final Report of Activities. Strasbourg: Council of Europe Press. pp. 68-90.
  • Lovenduski, Joni and Pippa Norris (eds.) 1996. Women in Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Perrigo, Sarah. 1996. ‘Women and Change in the Labour Party 1979-1995.’ Parliamentary Affairs 49, no. 1. pp. 116-129.
  • Short, C. 1996. ‘Women and the Labour Party’, Parliamentary Affairs, 49, 1: 17–25.
  • Squires, J. 1996. ‘Quotas for Women: Fair Representation?’ in J. Lovenduski and P. Norris (eds) Women in Politics, New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 73–90.
  • Norris, Pippa and Joni Lovenduski. 1995. Political Recruitment: Gender, Race and Class in the British Parliament. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Mowlan, Marjorie. 1993. ‘Redressing the Imbalance: Labour Party Proposals to Ensure Greater Access for Women to Parliamentary Seats at Westminster.’ Parliamentarian 74, no. 4. pp. 196-197.
  • Brooks, Rachel, Angela Eagle and Clare Short. 1990. Quotas Now: Women in the Labour Party. Fabian Tract 541. London: Fabian Society.
  • Vallance, E. 1984. ‘Women Candidates in the 1983 General Election’, Parliamentary
    Affairs, 37, 3: 301–9.
  • United Kingdom Parliament website,

Other Links

Inter-Parliamentary Union.

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliament in 2015: The year in review”:

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliament: 20 years in review”:

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliaments: World and Regional Averages”:

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliaments: World Classification ”:

Women's Environment and Development Organization,

Online Women in Politics,

Note: The sources and additional reading indicated above are mostly only available in English. We welcome recommendations of additional sources in other languages.



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