Gender Quotas Database



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  • Abou-Zeid, G. ‘Introducing Quotes in Africa: Discourse in Egypt’, paper presented at The Implementation of Quotas: African Experiences, Pretoria, November 2003.
  • Abou-Zeid, G. 2002. ‘In Search of Political Power-Women in Parliament in Egypt, Jordan and Lebanon’, in A. Karam (ed.) Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers, Stockholm: International IDEA.
  • Tamale, S. 1999. When Hens Begin to Crow: Gender and Parliamentary Politics in Uganda. Colorado: Westview Press.
  • Inter-Parliamentary Union. 1997. Democracy Still in the Making: A World Comparative Study. Geneva: Inter-Parliamentary Union.
  • Howard-Merriam, K. 1990. ‘Guaranteed Seats for Political Representation of Women: The Egyptian Example’, in Women and Politics. Vol. 10, 1. pp.17-42.
  • Egypt Parliament website,

Other Links

Inter-Parliamentary Union.

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliament in 2015: The year in review”:

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliament: 20 years in review”:

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliaments: World and Regional Averages”:

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in Parliaments: World Classification ”:

Women's Environment and Development Organization,

Online Women in Politics,

Note: The sources and additional reading indicated above are mostly only available in English. We welcome recommendations of additional sources in other languages.



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