Gender Quotas Database

Publications & Resources

IDEA Publications

Designing for Equality: Best-fit, medium-fit and non-favourable combinations of electoral systems and gender quotas

IDEA Workshop reports

The Arab Quota Report: Selected Case Studies (An International IDEA Report)

The Implementation of Quotas: African Experiences (An International IDEA Report)

The Implementation of Quotas: Asian Experiences (An International IDEA Report)

The Implementation of Quotas: Latin American Experiences (An International IDEA Report). Spanish translation: La aplicación de las cuotas: experiencias latinoamericanas

The Implementation of Quotas: European Experiences (An International IDEA Report in collaboration with the European Forum for Democracy and Solidarity and the CEE Network for Gender Issues)

Case Studies (Acrobat format)


Comparative Studies of Electoral Gender Quotas
By Drude Dahlerup

Quotas -- A Jump to Equality? The Need for International Comparisons of the Use of Electoral Quotas to obtain Equal Political Citizenship for Women
By Drude Dahlerup

Quotas are Changing the History of Women
By Drude Dahlerup


Quotas in Francophone Africa: Modest Beginnings
By Aissata De Diop

Implementation of Quotas: Experiences of the SADC Parliamentary Forum
By Rumbidzai Kandawasvika-Nhundu

Quota Systems in Africa - An Overview
By Bookie Monica Kethusegile-Juru

The Quota System within the African Union
By Dr. Mary Maboreke

Beyond Numbers - Quotas in practise (African Experiences)
By Colleen Lowe Morna


Strengthening Women’s Participation in the Inter-Parliamentary

By Kareen Jabre, Inter-Parliamentary Union

Socialist International Women
By Karolina Leakovic, General Secretary of Social Democratic Women’s Forum SDP Croatia

Moving Beyond Quotas in the EU: An Emerging Stage of Democracy
By Agnès Hubert (European Commission)

No Quota Fever in Europe?
By Drude Dahlerup Department of Political Science, Stockholm University, Sweden

Introducing Parity Democracy: The Role of the International Community and the European Women’s Lobby
By Cécile Gréboval, European Women’s Lobby Policy Coordinator

The Role of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women and its Monitoring Procedures for Achieving Gender Equality in Political Representation
By Hanna Beate Schöpp-Schilling, Expert Member of the CEDAW Committee

Lobbying for Quotas: The Experience of the CEE Network for Gender Issues
By Daša Šašić Šilović (CEE Network for Gender Issues)

Latin America

The Quota System in Latin America: General Overview
By Jacqueline Peschard


Pioneering Quotas: The Argentine Experience and Beyond
By María José Lubertino


The Implementation of Quotas: Bangladesh Experience -- Dependence and Marginality in Politics
By Najma Chowdhury


Women's Political Participation in Bolivia: Progress and Obstacles
Jimena Costa Benavides

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Application of Quotas: Legal Reforms and Implementation in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Besima Borić


Quotas for Women in the Brazilian Legislative System
By Clara Araújo


The Implementation of Gender Quotas in Britain
By Judith Squires

Costa Rica

Putting the Mandate into Practice: Legal Reform in Costa Rica
By Ana Isabel García Quesada


Political Party Quotas in the Croatian Social Democratic Party
By Karolina Leaković

East Timor

East Timor and the Debate on Quotas
By Milena Pires


Introducing Quotas in Africa: Discourse in Egypt
By Gihan Abou-Zeid


La participación política de la mujer indígena en el Parlamento ecuatoriano. Una tarea pendiente (Spanish only)
By Nina Pacari


Institutionalizing Parity: The French Experience
By Mariette Sineau


Advancement of Women’s Issues through Political Mobilization in Hungary: Impact of the Hungarian Socialist Party Quota
By Zita Gurmai and Marta Bonifert (CEE Network for Gender Issues)


The Implementation of Quotas for Women: The Indian Experience
By Vasanthi Raman


The Political Representation of Women in Indonesia: How Can It Be Achieved?
By Chusnul Mar'iyah, PhD


The Women’s Movement in Lithuania: Discourses and Lobbying Strategies By Meilute Taljunaite, Institute for Social Research Lithuania


Quotas: The Case of Macedonia
By Daniela Dimitrievska (Macedonian Women’s Lobby)


Engendering the Mauritian Political Space: The Need for Quotas
By Sheila Bunwaree


Quota Implementation in Mexico
By Jacqueline Peschard


Women's Political Participation: The Case of Morocco
By Rachida Tahri


Working Towards Gender Balance in Elected Positions of Government in Namibia
By Liz Frank


The Norwegian Experience of Gender Quotas
By Richard E. Matland Professor, University of Houston


Quotas in Pakistan: A Case Study
By Socorro L. Reyes


Quotas and Democracy in Peru
By Ana María Yáñez

Taking Stock of the Implementation of Quotas in Peru
By Rocío Villanueva Flores

The Implementation of Gender Quotas in Peru: Legal Reform, Discourses and Impacts
By Gregory D. Schmidt

Unanticipated Successes: Lessons from Peru's Experiences with Gender Quotas in Majoritarian Closed List and Open List PR Systems
By Gregory D. Schmidt


Gender Party Quotas in Poland
By Renata Siemienska, Warsaw University


Quotas In Practice: The Challenge Of Implementation And Enforcement In Rwanda
By The Honourable Judith Kanakuze


Women in Politics in Senegal
By Aminata Faye Kassé

Serbia and Montenegro

Implementing Quotas: Legal Reform and Enforcement in Serbia and Montenegro
By Zorica Mrsević (Institute for Social Science Research)


A Short History of Quotas in Slovenia
By Sonja Lokar Chair, Gender Task Force of the Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe

South Africa

Political Party Quotas in South Africa
By Mavivi Myakayaka-Manzini


The Politics of Quotas in Tanzania
By Ruth Meena


Introducing Quotas in Africa: Discourse and Legal Reform in Uganda
By Sylvia Tamale



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