Coding Instructions

To assist users of the database who want to know more about how we arrived at the different answers, we here publish the coding instructions that were employed by the project researchers. Note that in the below text NA stands for „not applicable“ and ND stands for „no data“. If you have any questions please contact us on political-finance@idea.int.

1. Is there a ban on donations from foreign interests to political parties?

If you find information that political parties are not allowed to receive donations from any of the following; foreign citizens, foreign companies, foreign governments or foreign organisations, code “YES”. Also code “YES” if it is stated that such entities are banned from giving support, contributions or donations to political parties.

Also code “YES” if legislation includes an exhaustive list of allowed sources of income for political parties, and this only includes national sources (such as “citizens” or “natural and judicial persons from XX-land”). By an “exhaustive list” is meant where it is stated something like “political parties are only allowed to receive income from the following sources”. If it says something like “allowed sources for political parties include...” it is not exhaustive.

If you find information about allowed or banned sources for political parties and there is no mention about foreign sources, code “NO”.

Note that a regulation of this issue for political parties may be found in a political party law. In some countries, this issue is regulated in the Constitution, normally in a section specifically on political parties.

Note that if you find information that foreign funding is banned from being used in election campaigns, but it is not explicitly stated or clear from the context that it relates specifically to political parties or candidates, code “NO” for both this and the following question.

If you cannot find information, code “ND”.

2. Is there a ban on donations from foreign interests to candidates?

If you find information that candidates are not allowed to receive donations from any of the following; foreign citizens, foreign companies, foreign governments or foreign organisations, code “YES” for parties. Also code “YES” if it is stated that such entities are banned from giving support, contributions or donations to candidates.

Also code “YES” if legislation includes an exhaustive list of allowed sources of income for candidates, and this only includes national sources (such as “citizens” or “natural and judicial persons from XX-land”). By an “exhaustive list” is meant where it is stated something like “candidates are only allowed to receive income from the following sources”. If it says something like “allowed sources for candidates include...” it is not exhaustive.

If you find information about allowed or banned sources for candidates and there is no mention about foreign sources, code “NO”.

Note that a regulation of this issue for candidates (if it is regulated) will almost always be found in the electoral law. In some countries, this issue is regulated in the Constitution, normally in a section specifically on elections.

Note that if you find information that foreign funding is banned from being used in election campaigns, but it is not explicitly stated or clear from the context that it relates specifically to political parties or candidate s, code “NO” for both this and the preceding question.

If you cannot find information, code “ND”.

3. Is there a ban on corporate donations to political parties?

If you find information that political parties are not allowed to receive donations from corporations, companies or business enterprises, code “YES”. Also code “YES” if it is stated that such entities are banned from giving support, contributions or donations to political parties.

Also code “YES” if legislation includes an exhaustive list of allowed sources of income for political parties, and this does not include any of the above or “judicial persons”. By an “exhaustive list” is meant where it is stated something like “political parties are only allowed to receive income from the following sources”. If it says something like “allowed sources for political parties include...” it is not exhaustive.

If you find information about allowed or banned sources for political parties and there is no mention about the sources mentioned above, code “NO”. If the regulations only ban donations from state-owned or public corporations etc, also code “NO”.

Note that a regulation of this issue for political parties may be found in a political party law. In some countries, this issue is regulated in the Constitution, normally in a section specifically on political parties.

Note that if you find information that corporate funding is banned from being used in election campaigns, but it is not explicitly stated or clear from the context that it relates specifically to political parties or candidates, code “NO” for both this and the following question.

If you cannot find information, code “ND”.

4. Is there a ban on corporate donations to candidates?

If you find information that candidates are not allowed to receive donations from corporations, companies and/or business enterprises, code “YES”. Also code “YES” if it is stated that such entities are banned from giving support, contributions or donations to candidates.

Also code “YES” if legislation includes an exhaustive list of allowed sources of income for candidates, and this does not include the above or “judicial persons”. By an “exhaustive list” is meant where it is stated something like “candidates are only allowed to receive income from the following sources”. If it says something like “allowed sources for candidates include...” it is not exhaustive.

If you find information about allowed or banned sources for candidates and there is no mention about the sources mentioned above, code “NO”. If the regulations only ban donations from state-owned or public corporations etc, also code “NO”.

Note that a regulation of this issue for candidates (if it is regulated) will almost always be found in the electoral law. In some countries, this issue is regulated in the Constitution, normally in a section specifically on elections.

Note that if you find information that corporate funding is banned from being used in election campaigns, but it is not explicitly stated or clear from the context that it relates specifically to political parties or candidates, code “NO” for both this and the preceding question.

If you cannot find information, code “ND”.

5. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with government contracts or partial government ownership to political parties?

If you find information that political parties are not allowed to receive donations from corporations, companies or business enterprises that have public/government contracts or that are partly owned or controlled by the government, code “YES”. Also code “YES” if it is stated that such entities are banned from giving support, contributions or donations to political parties.

Also code “YES” if legislation includes an exhaustive list of allowed sources of income for political parties, and this does not include the above. By an “exhaustive list” is meant where it is stated something like “political parties are only allowed to receive income from the following sources”. If it says something like “allowed sources for political parties include...” it is not exhaustive.

If you find information about allowed or banned sources for political parties and there is no mention about the sources mentioned above, code “NO”. If the regulations only ban donations from state-owned or public corporations etc, also code “NO”.

Note that if you find information that funding from companies with government contracts or partial government ownership is banned from being used in election campaigns, but it is not explicitly stated or clear from the context that it relates specifically to political parties or candidates, code “NO” for both this and the following question.

Note that this question does not relate to donations from direct government sources such as ministries, government agencies or public companies. This is addressed in question 11.

If you have not found any information and you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.

6. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with government contracts or partial government ownership to candidates?

If you find information that candidates are not allowed to receive donations from corporations, companies or business enterprises that have public/government contracts, or that are partly owned or controlled by the government, code “YES”. Also code “YES” if it is stated that such entities are banned from giving support, contributions or donations to political parties.

Also code “YES” if legislation includes an exhaustive list of allowed sources of income for candidates, and this does not include the above. By an “exhaustive list” is meant where it is stated something like “political parties are only allowed to receive income from the following sources”. If it says something like “allowed sources for candidates include...” it is not exhaustive.

If you find information about allowed or banned sources for candidates and there is no mention about the sources mentioned above, code “NO”.

Note that if you find information that funding from companies with government contracts or partial government ownership is banned from being used in election campaigns, but it is not explicitly stated or clear from the context that it relates specifically to political parties or candidates, code “NO” for both this and the preceding question.

Note that this question does not relate to donations from direct government sources such as ministries, government agencies or public companies. This is addressed in question 11.

If you have not found any information and you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.

7. Is there a ban on donations from Trade Unions to political parties?

If you find information that political parties are not allowed to receive donations from trade unions, workers’ organisations etc, code “YES”. Also code “YES” if it is stated that such entities are banned from giving support, contributions or donations to political parties.

Also code “YES” if legislation includes an exhaustive list of allowed sources of income for political parties, and this does not include any of the above. By an “exhaustive list” is meant where it is stated something like “political parties are only allowed to receive income from the following sources”. If it says something like “allowed sources for political parties include...” it is not exhaustive.

If you find information about allowed or banned sources for political parties and there is no mention about the sources mentioned above, code “NO”.

Note that if you find information that trade union funding is banned from being used in election campaigns, but it is not explicitly stated or clear from the context that it relates specifically to political parties or candidates, code “NO” for both this and the following question.

If you have not found any information and you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.

8. Is there a ban on donations from Trade Unions to candidates?

If you find information that candidates are not allowed to receive donations from trade unions, workers’ organisations etc, code “YES”. Also code “YES” if it is stated that such entities are banned from giving support, contributions or donations to candidates.

Also code “YES” if legislation includes an exhaustive list of allowed sources of income for candidates, and this does not include any of the above. By an “exhaustive list” is meant where it is stated something like “candidates are only allowed to receive income from the following sources”. If it says something like “allowed sources for candidates include...” it is not exhaustive.

If you find information about allowed or banned sources for candidates and there is no mention about the sources mentioned above, code “NO”.

Note that if you find information that from trade unions funding is banned from being used in election campaigns, but it is not explicitly stated or clear from the context that it relates specifically to political parties or candidates, code “NO” for both this and the preceding question.

If you have not found any information and you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.

9. Is there a ban on anonymous donations to political parties?

If you find information that political parties are not allowed to receive donations from anonymous or unnamed sources, code “YES”. Also code “YES” if it is stated that support, contributions or donations to political parties cannot be given anonymously.

Also code “YES” if it is regulated that political parties must be able to provide names or to identify the source of all donations (a de facto ban on anonymous donations).

Code “No, but specific limit” if there are no bans but a limit on the amount donated. Please indicate the actual limit in the public comments field.

Code “NO” if you find information about sources of funding and there is no mention of anonymous sources, if anonymous donations are explicitly allowed or if it is clear that there are no limitations on sources of funds at all.

If you have not found any information and you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.

10. Is there a ban on anonymous donations to candidates?

If you find information that candidates are not allowed to receive donations from anonymous or unnamed sources, code “YES”. Also code “YES” if it is stated that support, contributions or donations to candidates cannot be given anonymously.

Also code “YES” if it is regulated that candidates must be able to provide names or to identify the source of all donations (a de facto ban on anonymous donations).

Code “No, but specific limit” if there are no bans but a limit on the amount donated. Please indicate the actual limit in the public comments field.

Code “NO” if you find information about sources of funding and there is no mention of anonymous sources, if anonymous donations are explicitly allowed or if it is clear that there are no limitations on sources of funds at all.

If you cannot find information, code “ND”.

11. Is there a ban on state resources being given to or received by political parties or candidates (excluding regulated public funding)?

Code “YES” if there are regulations against the giving of state resources to a particular political party/parties or candidate(s), whether or not it is in relation to elections.

Code “YES” it is stated that any or all of the following are banned from making contributions to political parties and/or candidates; government agencies, public institutions, Ministries, local government institutions, public companies (fully state owned). Also code “YES” if there is a ban on political parties or candidates receiving such support. If a ban only relates to political parties or to candidates, code “YES” and give details in an external comment.

The provision of regulated direct or indirect public funding to all eligible political party is not relevant for this question. Nor are provisions that public resources must not be used in favour of a particular party/candidate or that state agencies/staff/media must be neutral (see question 30)

Code “NO” if you find information about sources of funding and there is no mention of the use of state resources or if is clear that there are no limitations on sources of funds at all.

If you have not found any information and you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.

12. Is there a ban on any other form of donation?

If you find information of a ban on any form of contributions or donations not covered by the preceding questions to either or both of political parties or candidates, code “YES”. This could for example be a ban on all forms of private donations or on donations from convicted felons. The ban could also be indirect – for example if only registered voters are allowed to contribute, then minors are as a consequence banned from making contributions. If you code “YES”, you must give details in an external comment.

If you find regulations about sources of income for political parties or candidates but there is nothing not covered by preceding questions, code “NO”.

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about other forms of donations, code “ND”.

13. Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party over a time period (not election specific)?

Code “YES” if there are any regulations limiting the amounts that an entity (individuals, organisations etc) can donate/contribute to a political party for a certain time period, not specifically in relation to elections.

Code “NO” if you find information about political party and campaign finance but there is no information of such limits, or if there seem to be no regulations of political party finance at all.

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about such limits, code “ND”.

14. If there is a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party over a time period (not election specific), what is the limit?

If you code “NO” on question 13, code “NA” on this question. If you code “ND” on that question, code “ND”.

Give information about the contribution limit to political parties (in the currency used in the regulation, noting which one that is) and add what the time period the limit is for, and any other information.

If you find no information about the limit (such as if it is stated that the limit is to be set by an institution), code “ND” and give details in an external comment.

15. Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party in relation to an election?

Code “YES” if there are any regulations limiting the amounts that an entity (individuals, organisations etc) can donate/contribute to a political party in relation to elections.

Code “NO” if you find information about political party and campaign finance but there is no information of such limits, or if there seem to be no regulations of political party finance at all.

Code “Regular limit applies” when Q13 is YES but there is no regulation for Q15.

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about such limits, code “No data”.

16. If there is a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party in relation to an election, what is the limit?

If you code “NO” on question 15, code “NA” on this question. If you code “ND” on that question, code “ND”.

Give information about the contribution limit to political parties (in the currency used in the regulation, noting which one that is) and add information such as if the limit is per constituency, per candidate or per voter. If the limit is expressed as a calculation (for example 100 times the minimum wage), code that.

If you find no information about the limit (such as if it is stated that the limit is to be set by an institution), code “ND” and give details in an external comment.

17. Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a candidate?

Code “YES” if there are any regulations limiting the amounts that an entity (individuals, organisations etc) can donate/contribute to a candidate in relation to elections.

Code “NO” if you find information about campaign finance but there is no information of such limits, or if there seem to be no regulations of candidate finance at all.

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about such limits, code “ND”.

18. If there is a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a candidate, what is the limit?

If you code “NO” on question 17, code “NA” on this question. If you code “ND” on that question, code “ND”.

Give information about the contribution limit to candidates (in the currency used in the regulation, noting which one that is) and add information such as if the limit is per constituency, or per voter. If the limit is expressed as a calculation (for example 100 times the minimum wage), code that.

If you find no information about the limit (such as if it is stated that the limit is to be set by an institution), code “ND” and give details in an external comment.

Public funding

19. Are there provisions for direct public funding to political parties?

Code “REGULARLY” if it is it regulated that political parties are entitled to provision of direct public funding [money] that is provided regularly (normally annually or more often), not specifically related to election campaigns.

Code “IN RELATION TO CAMPAIGNS” if it is it regulated that political parties are entitled to provision of direct public funding [money] that is provided specifically related to election campaigns.

Code “BOTH” if both of these types of direct public funding are provided.

Code “NO” if a list of permitted sources of income of a political party does not include any mention of public funding and no information about public funding can be found. Also code “NO” if a law mentions that public funding “may” or “could” be provided, but then make an external comment explaining this.

If you cannot find information, code “ND”.

20. If there are provisions for direct public funding to political parties, what are the eligibility criteria?

If you code “NO” on question 20, code “NA” on this question. If you code “ND” on question 20, code “ND”.

Give the basis used to establish eligibility for political parties to access direct funding (or “who has the right to receive”).

If the eligibility criteria is that a political party must have representation in an elected body, code “REPRESENTATION IN ELECTED BODY”.

If the eligibility is that a party must have won a certain share of votes in the preceding election, code ”SHARE OF VOTES IN PREVIOUS ELECTION” including the percentage that is required.

If the eligibility is that a party must win a certain share of votes in the next election, code ”SHARE OF VOTES IN NEXT ELECTION” including the percentage that is required (this is sometimes used when public funding is provided after an election).

If the eligibility is based on a certain number of seats or “representation” that each party holds or won in the preceding election, code SHARE OF SEATS IN PREVIOUS ELECTION” including the percentage that is required.

If the eligibility is based on a certain number of seats or “representation” that each party wins in the next election, code SHARE OF SEATS IN NEXT ELECTION” including the percentage that is required (this is sometimes used when public funding is provided after an election).

If eligibility is established by the number of candidates presented by the party (in the preceding or forthcoming election) code “NO. OF CANDIDATES”, noting the number of candidates needed. Also use this code if eligibility is based on a political party is required to present candidates in a certain number of districts etc.

If eligibility is established by the number of members of the party, code “NO. OF MEMBERS”, noting the number of members needed.

If another criteria is used, code “OTHER” (and give an external comment to specify.

If more than one criterion is used, code all the applicable options.

If you cannot find information, or if it is stated that the eligibility criteria is decided by a particular institution, code “ND”.

In case the answer “BOTH” was given in question 19 and the eligibility criteria is different for the two types of direct public funding, the answer to this question should relate to the funding given in relation to campaign support, with information about for regular assistance noted in internal comments.

21. If there are provisions for direct public funding to political parties, what is the allocation calculation?

If you code “NO” on question 20, code “NA” on this question. If you code “ND” on question 20, code “ND”.

This question refers to how the public funding is distributed between those that have a right to receive it.

Public funding can be provided equally to all eligible political parties; totally in proportion to something like seats or votes won; or (most commonly) a combination of the two.

If the regulation is that all political parties receive the same amount, enter “EQUAL”. Do the same if it is simply stated that the funds are allocated “equally”.

If it is stated that the funds are allocated proportionally, note the basis for such proportionality. If it for example is stated that the allocation is based on the number of seats or the “representation” of each party, enter “SEATS”.

If it stated that the funds is allocated by the number of votes received (in the preceding or forthcoming election), enter “VOTES”. If it is allocated by the number of members of the party, enter “MEMBERS”.

If it is allocated by the number of candidates presented by the party (in the preceding or forthcoming election) enter “CANDIDATES”.

If another criterion is used, enter “OTHER” (and give a internal comment).

If more than one criterion is used (for example if some of the proportional funds is distributed by one criteria and some by another, enter “COMBINATION” (and give an external comment).

If some of the funds are provided equally and some proportionally, also note the percentage of the funds that are allocated proportionally.

If you cannot find information, code “ND”.

In case the answer “BOTH” was given in question ##19 and the allocation criteria is different for the two types of direct public funding, the answer to this question should relate to the funding given in relation to campaign support, with information about for regular assistance noted in internal comments.

22. If there are provisions for direct public funding to political parties, are there provisions for how it should be used (“ear marking”)?

If you code “NO” on question 20, code “NA” on this question. If you code “ND” on question 20, code “ND”.

If it is noted that direct public funding provided to political parties must only be used for certain purposes, code which.

If it is stated that the money must be used for election campaign purposes, code “CAMPAIGN SPENDING”.

If it is noted that the money must be used for ongoing party activities such as administration, public awareness campaigns, policy platform development, voter interaction or membership drives, code “ONGOING PARTY ACTIVITIES”.

If funds are given directly to or explicitly intended for the use of particular institutions within political parties, such as Youth or Women’s Wings or research or policy institutions within parties, code “INTRA-PARTY INSTITUTION”. Provide additional information in an external comment.

If some other form of earmarking is noted, or if it is noted that public funds must not be used for a certain purpose, code “OTHER” and give an external comment.

If funds are earmarked for several uses, code all the applicable options.

If there are no provisions for what direct public funding must be used, code “NO”.

If you cannot find information, code “ND”.

In case the answer “BOTH” was given in question 19 and the answer to this question is different for the two types of direct public funding, the answer to this question should relate to the funding given in relation to campaign support, with information about for regular assistance noted in internal comments.

23. Are there provisions for free or subsidized access to media for political parties?

Code “YES” if political parties are entitled to free or subsidised access to public or private TV, radio, newspaper or other media, regardless of whether this is in relation to election campaigns or not. Note details in an external comment. A provision that media outlets should treat political parties without bias would not be relevant for this question.

Information about this issue is sometimes not listed together with general political party or campaign finance provisions; sometimes it is regulated in an electoral law (or similar) in paragraphs that relate to the role of media in elections.

Code “NO” if you find information about political party finance and media in elections but there is no information of such benefits.

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.

24. If there are provisions for political parties’ free or subsidized access to media, what criteria determine access allocation?

If you code “NO” on question 23, code “NA” on this question. If you code “ND” on that question, code “ND”.

If it says that access is provided equally to all, CODE “EQUAL”.

If the time/access is allocated depending on the number of candidates that each political party has nominated/presented, code “NUMBER OF CANDIDATES”.

If the time/access is allocated depending on the share or number of seats that each political party holds in an elected body, code “SHARE OF SEATS”.

If something else is used as the basis for allocation, code “OTHER”.

If more than one criterion is used, code all the applicable options.

If there are details about how the access should be divided between political parties, provide a brief explanation in an external comment.

If there are no details, code “ND”

25. Are there provisions for free or subsidized access to media for candidates?

Code “YES” if candidates are entitled to free or subsidised access to public or private TV, radio, newspaper or other media, regardless of whether this is in relation to election campaigns or not. Note details in an external comment. A provision that media outlets should treat candidates without bias would not be relevant for this question.

Information about this issue is sometimes not listed together with general political party or campaign finance provisions; sometimes it is regulated in an electoral law (or similar) in paragraphs that relate to the role of media in elections.

Code “NO” if you find information about political party finance and media in elections but there is no information of such benefits.

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.

26. Are there provisions for any other form of indirect public funding?

If you find information of any form of support, assistance or benefit from the state to either or both of political parties or of candidates not covered by the preceding questions, code “YES”.

This could for example be;

  • Political parties/candidates being exempt from tax or custom duties, or receiving other tax benefits
  • Donors to political parties/candidates receiving tax benefits from donations
  • Provision of free or subsidized transport, postage, office space, areas for events, poster.

If you code “YES”, you must give details in an external comment.

If you find regulations about state assistance to political parties or candidates but there is nothing not covered by preceding questions, code “NO”.

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about other forms of donations, code “ND”.

27. Is the provision of direct public funding to political parties related to gender equality among candidates?

If you code “NO” on question 19, code “NA” on this question. If you code “ND” on that question, code “ND”.

Code “YES” if there are provisions that political parties will receive additional public funding if they meet criteria relating to gender equality among their candidates, or if political parties risk losing all or some of their public funding if they do not reach such criteria. Explain the criteria briefly, noting both the sanction/reward and the definition of gender equality to be used.

Examples include reduced funding if gender inequality among candidates/ extra funding added for parties with gender equality among candidates/earmarking of funds for gender equality activities. A search in each law for “women”, “gender” and “sex” may be useful.

Code “NO” if you find no information in legislation or other sources that a connection between direct public funding and the gender equality is in use.

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.

28. Are there provisions for other financial advantages to encourage gender equality in political parties?

This question relates to regulations that are explicitly aimed at increasing gender equality in the activities or organisation of political parties.

If there is provision that public funding (direct or indirect) is to be given especially to the Women’s Wing (or similar) of a political party, code “FUNDING OF WOMEN’S WING”.

If it is stated that women candidates or that political parties that fulfil certain criteria regarding gender equality benefit from increased access to media, code “INCREASED MEDIA ACCESS”.

If it is stated that women candidates or that political parties that fulfil certain criteria regarding gender equality benefit from tax benefits, or that donors to women candidates or political parties that fulfil certain criteria regarding gender equality receive tax benefits, code “TAX BENEFITS.

If it is stated that women candidates or that political parties that fulfil certain criteria regarding gender equality benefit from reduced candidate nomination fees, code “REDUCED NOMINATION FEES”.

If it is stated that women candidates or that political parties that fulfil certain criteria regarding gender equality benefit from other forms of regulation, code “OTHER”.

Give additional information in an external comment (you must do so if you have coded “other”).

A search in each law for the terms “women”, “gender” and “sex” may be useful.

If more than one alternative apply, code all of them.

Code “NO” if you find no information in legislation or other sources that financial benefits to increase gender equality is in use.

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.

Regulations of spending

29. Is there a ban on vote buying?

Code “YES” if there is a ban on bribing or influencing voters to vote in a certain manner.

Note that this information is not normally found among regular political party or campaign finance provisions. Often bans of this type are found in a list of election offences or similar, which tends to be placed towards the end of election laws.

Code “NO” if no such provisions exist. Also code “NO” if there is a ban on political parties or candidates to incur certain expenses such as charitable spending in relation to elections, but there is no necessary connection made between such spending and exerting influence on how people vote.

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about other vote buying (or election offences), code “ND”.

30. Are there bans on state resources being used in favour or against a political party or candidate?

This question is different from question 11 in that this question relates not to resources being given to political parties or candidates, but to resources being used directly or indirectly in favour of a political party or candidate.

Code “YES” if there are any regulations against the use of state resources to favour a particular political party or candidate, whether or not it is in relation to elections or who is using these resources. This could for example include;

  • A general ban on using state resources in favour of a political party or candidate
  • A ban on government vehicles being used in election campaigns
  • A ban on campaigning taking place at government facilities (unless same access given to all contestants)
  • A ban on civil servants or state employees to campaign while on duty/during office hours
  • A ban on public media giving biased coverage in relation to political parties or elections, or a requirement for public media to be neutral in its reporting (regulations of private media are not relevant in this regard).

(Give details in an external comment).

Note that this type of regulation may not be in the same place as information about political party or campaign finance. There may for example be a separate section on this issue, or information may be included among a list of election offences (such a list is often find towards the end of electoral laws).

The provision of regulated direct or indirect public funding to all eligible political party is not relevant for this question.

Code “NO” if you have access to regulations about elections (and if possible political party activities) and there is no mention of the use of state resources.

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about the use of state resources, code “ND”.

31. Are there limits on the amount a political party can spend?

Code “YES” if there are any regulations limiting the amounts that political parties can spend, either for a certain time period or in relation to an election. Give details in an external comment.

Code “NO” if you find information about political party and campaign finance but there is no information of such limits, or if there seem to be no regulations of political party finance at all.

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about such limits, code “ND”.

32. If there are limits on the amount a political party can spend, what is the limit?

If you code “NO” on question 31, code “NA” on this question. If you code “ND” on that question, code “ND”.

Give information about the spending limit for political parties (in the currency used in the regulation, noting which one that is) and add if the limit is for a certain time period, for an election and also if it is per constituency or per voter etc.

If you find no information about the limit (such as if it is stated that the limit is to be set by an institution), code “ND” and give details in an external comment.

33. Are there limits on the amount a candidate can spend?

Code “YES” if there are any regulations limiting the amounts that an election candidate can spend, either for a certain time period or in relation to an election. Code “YES” even if such limits only applies to certain candidates (give details in an external comment).

Code “NO” if you find information about candidate finance but there is no information of such limits, or if there seem to be no regulations of candidate finance at all.

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about such limits, code “ND”.

34. If there are limits on the amount a candidate can spend what is the limit for spending?

If you code “NO” on question 33, code “NA” on this question. If you code “ND” on that question, code “ND”.

Give information about the spending limit for candidates (in the currency used in the regulation, noting which one that is) and add if the limit is for a certain time period, for an election and also if it is per constituency or per voter etc.

If you find no information about the limit (such as if it is stated that the limit is to be set by an institution), code “ND” and give details in an external comment.

Reporting, oversight and sanctions

35. Do political parties have to report regularly on their finances?

Note that this question does not relate to any financial reports, statements or disclosure that political parties need to make in relation to election campaigns (such as submitting certain information before or after an election date).

If there any requirements that political parties or any institution within political parties must provide certain financial information, submits reports or makes financial statements regularly (often annually), code “YES”. Add any details in an external comment.

If political party or political finance legislation makes no mention of political parties having to submit any financial records, reports or statements, or if a written source or expert witness states that there are no such requirements, code “NO”.

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.

36. Do political parties have to report on their finances in relation to election campaigns?

Note that this question does not relate to any financial reports, statements or disclosure that political parties need to make regularly (such as annually), only such made in relation to election campaigns (such as submitting certain information before or after an election date).

If there are any requirements that political parties or any institution within political parties must provide certain financial information, submits reports or makes financial statements in relation to an election campaign, code “YES”. Add any details in an external comment.

If political party, political finance or electoral legislation makes no mention of political parties having to submit any financial records, reports or statements, or if a written source or expert witness states that there are no such requirements, code “NO”.

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.

37. Do candidates have to report on their campaign finances?

If there are any requirements that candidates must submit certain financial information, submits reports or makes financial statements in relation to an election campaign, code “YES”.

If, political finance or electoral legislation makes no mention of candidates having to submit any financial records, reports or statements, or if a written source or expert witness states that there are no such requirements, code “NO”.

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.

38. Is information in reports from political parties and/or candidates to be made public?

If you code “NO” on all of questions 35, 36 and 37, code “NA” on this question. If you code “ND” on all those questions, code “ND”.

If it is stated that some or all of the submitted information submitted is made public, including being printed in a gazette, put on a website or made available at an office, code “YES”. If there is any information that does not need to be made public, note this in an external comment. Also code “YES” if political parties are required to make information public themselves in whatever format.

If there are no statements that submitted financial reports is made public in political party, political finance or electoral laws (as applicable), or if a written source or expert witness states that there are no such requirements, code “NO”. Also code “NO” if it explicitly stated that the received information will be confidential (or similar wording).

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.

39. Must reports from political parties and/or candidates reveal the identity of donors?

Code “YES” if there is a requirement for political parties or candidates to report on the identity of the persons or entities that have provided donations or contributions. This could include a general provision to reveal the identity of donors or a more specific requirement to put names, address etc of contributors in financial reports being made.

Code “SOMETIMES” if only donations above a certain value has been given or if there are other limitations to when a donor’s identity must be revealed, and note details in an external comment.

Code “NO” if it is explicitly stated that political parties do not have to reveal the identity of donors, or if there are no provisions on this issue at all.

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about the identity of donors, code “ND”.

40. What institution(s) receives financial reports from political parties and/or candidates?

If you code “NO” on all of questions 35, 36 and 37, code “NA” on this question. If you code “ND” on all those questions, code “ND”.

Note which type of institution(s) that has a mandate to receive financial statements from political parties and or candidates, either regularly or in relation to elections.

If it is the electoral commission or similar institution, code “EMB”.

If it is a Ministry or a person or institution within a Ministry, code “MINISTRY”.

If it an institution with the specific purpose to oversee political parties or political party/campaign finance, code “SPECAL INST.”

If is a court or a person or institution within a court, code “COURT”.

If it is institution such as a national auditing bureau, code “AUDITING AGENCY”

If it is some other form of institution, code “OTHER”.

If more than one institution is involved, code all that apply.

If you cannot find information, code “ND”.

If neither political parties nor candidates need to submit any financial reports, code “NA”

41. Is it specified that a particular institution(s) is responsible for examining financial reports and/or investigating violations?

Note which type of institution that has a mandate to investigate breaches of financial rules by political parties, candidates or other actors, either regularly or in relation to elections. The answer may or may not be the same as in questions 40.

If it is the electoral commission or similar institution, code “EMB”.

If it is a Ministry or a person or institution within a Ministry, code “MINISTRY”.

If it an institution with the specific purpose to oversee political parties or political party/campaign finance, code “SPECAL INST.”

If is a court or a person or institution within a court, code “COURT”.

If it is institution such as a national auditing bureau, code “AUDITING AGENCY”

If it is some other form of institution, code “OTHER”.

If more than one institution is involved, code all that apply.

If you cannot find information, code “ND”.

42. What other institutions have a formal role in political finance oversight?

Note any other institutions apart from those noted in questions 40 and 41 that have a formal role in relation to political parties or election finance. This could for example be a body that receives (but does not investigate) complaints or which hears appeals in related cases. More than one answer is allowed, and give details in an external comment.

If the electoral commission or similar institution, code “EMB”.

If a Ministry or a person or institution within a Ministry, code “MINISTRY”.

If it an institution with the specific purpose to oversee political parties or political party/campaign finance, code “SPECAL INST.”

If is a court or a person or institution within a court, code “COURT”.

If it is institution such as a national auditing bureau, code “AUDITING AGENCY”

If it is some other form of institution, code “OTHER”.

If more than one institution is involved, such as if one institution deals with political party breaches and one with election infractions, code all that apply.

If you cannot find information, code “ND”.

43. What sanctions are provided for political finance infractions?

Note all types of sanctions that may be applied in case of offences related to political party or campaign finance. Multiple alternatives can be given.

If a political party, candidate or other actor (such as party officials, donors or party/candidate auditors) may be given a fine or other financial penalty, code “FINE”.

If a candidate or other actor (such as party officials, donors or party/candidate auditors) may be given a prison sentence, code “PRISON”.

If a political party or candidate has to return amounts received against the rules, or forward the amount (or a multiple of the amount) to someone else, such as the EMB, code “FORFEITURE”).

If there are offences or infractions relating to political party finance which can lead to direct public funding being withheld/reduced/stopped or demanded in return, code “LOSS OF PUBLIC FUNDING”

If a political party may be deregistered for offences relating to political finance, code “DEREGISTRATION OF PARTY”.

If a candidate may lose her/his nomination to stand for election for offences relating to political finance, code “LOSS OF NOMINATION OF CANDIDATE”.

If a person may lose the right to vote and to be elected or in cases of ineligibility for certain employment or a general suspension of political rights code “LOSS OF POLITICAL RIGHTS”. Note that for cases where a person already has been nominated, the code “loss of nomination of candidate” should be used.

If it is stated that a person who has won an elected position may be deprived of it code “LOSS OF ELECTED OFFICE”.

If it is stated that a political party may temporarily be banned either from participating in elections or more generally from carrying out political party activities code “SUSPENSION OF POLITICAL PARTY”.

If there are other types of sanctions apart from those noted above, code “OTHER”. If so, you must give details in an external comment.

If there are no provisions for sanctions regarding breaches of political finance regulations, code “NONE”.

If there are no regulations whatsoever relating to political finance (and so there cannot be any sanctions), code “NA”.

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.