Coding Instructions

To assist users of the database who want to know more about how we arrived at the different answers, view the coding instructions that were employed by the project researchers.

Note that in the below text NA stands for "not applicable" and ND stands for "no data".

If you have any questions, please contact us by email at pfdatabase2018@idea.int .

     

Q

Question

Coding options

Coding instruction

1

Is there a ban on donations from foreign interests to political parties?

YES 

 

NO

 

ND

If you find information that political parties are not allowed to receive donations from any or all the following; foreign citizens, foreign companies, foreign governments or foreign organisations, code “YES”. If donations from some but not all of the above are banned, code “YES” and give details in an external comment. Also, code “YES” if it is stated that such entities are banned from giving support, contributions or donations to political parties. 

Also, code “YES” if legislation includes an exhaustive list of allowed sources of income for political parties, and this only includes national sources (such as “citizens” or “natural and judicial persons from X-land”). By an “exhaustive list” is meant where it is stated something like “political parties are only allowed to receive income from the following sources” or (more vague) “parties may receive funding from the following sources”. If it says something like “allowed sources for political parties include...” it is not exhaustive. 

If you find information about allowed or banned sources for political parties and there is no mention about foreign sources, code “NO”. 

Note that a regulation of this issue for political parties may be found in a political party law. In some countries, this issue is regulated in the Constitution, normally in a section specifically on political parties. Rules regarding if citizens of the country in question living abroad can donate are not relevant for this question.

Note that if you find information that foreign funding is banned from being used in election campaigns, but it is not explicitly stated or clear from the context that it relates specifically to political parties or candidates, code “NO” for both this and the following question.

If you cannot find information, code “ND”.

 

2

Is there a ban on donations from foreign interests to candidates?

YES

 

NO

 

ND

If you find information that candidates are not allowed to receive donations from any or all of the following; foreign citizens, foreign companies, foreign governments or foreign organisations, code “YES”. If donations from some but not all of the above are banned, code “YES” and give details in an external comment. Also, code “YES” if it is stated that such entities are banned from giving support, contributions or donations to candidates.

Also, code “YES” if legislation includes an exhaustive list of allowed sources of income for candidates, and this only includes national sources (such as “citizens” or “natural and judicial persons from X-land”). By an “exhaustive list” is meant where it is stated something like “candidates are only allowed to receive income from the following sources” or (more vague) “candidates may receive funding from the following sources”. If it says something like “allowed sources for candidates include...” it is not exhaustive. 

If you find information about allowed or banned sources for candidates and there is no mention about foreign sources, code “NO”. 

Note that a regulation of this issue for candidates (if it is regulated) will almost always be found in the electoral law. In some countries, this issue is regulated in the Constitution, normally in a section specifically on elections. Rules regarding if citizens of the country in question living abroad can donate are not relevant for this question.

Note that if you find information that foreign funding is banned from being used in election campaigns, but it is not explicitly stated or clear from the context that it relates specifically to political parties or candidates, code “NO” for both this and the preceding question.

If you cannot find information, code “ND”.

 

3

Is there a ban on corporate donations to political parties?

YES

 

NO

 

ND

If you find information that political parties are not allowed to receive donations from corporations, companies and/or business enterprises, code “YES”. Also, code “YES” if it is stated that such entities are banned from giving support, contributions or donations to political parties. This includes bans on either or both of monetary and in-kind donations.

Also, code “YES” if legislation includes an exhaustive list of allowed sources of income for political parties, and this does not include the above or “judicial persons”. By an “exhaustive list” is meant where it is stated something like “political parties are only allowed to receive income from the following sources” or (more vague) “parties may receive funding from the following sources”. If it says something like “allowed sources for political parties include...” it is not exhaustive. 

If you find information about allowed or banned sources for political parties and there is no mention about the sources mentioned above, code “NO”. If the regulations only ban donations from state-owned or public corporations etc, also code “NO”.

Note that a regulation of this issue for political parties may be found in a political party law. In some countries, this issue is regulated in the Constitution, normally in a section specifically on political parties.

Note that if you find information that corporate funding is banned from being used in election campaigns, but it is not explicitly stated or clear from the context that it relates specifically to political parties or candidates, code “NO” for both this and the following question.

If you cannot find information, code “ND”.

 

4

Is there a ban on corporate donations to candidates?

YES

 

NO

 

ND

If you find information that candidates are not allowed to receive donations from corporations, companies and/or business enterprises, code “YES”. Also, code “YES” if it is stated that such entities are banned from giving support, contributions or donations to candidates. This includes bans on either or both of monetary and in-kind donations.

Also, code “YES” if legislation includes an exhaustive list of allowed sources of income for candidates, and this does not include the above or “judicial persons”. By an “exhaustive list” is meant where it is stated something like “candidates are only allowed to receive income from the following sources” or (more vague) “candidates may receive funding from the following sources”. If it says something like “allowed sources for candidates include...” it is not exhaustive. 

If you find information about allowed or banned sources for candidates and there is no mention about the sources mentioned above, code “NO”. If the regulations only ban donations from state-owned or public corporations etc, also code “NO”.

Note that a regulation of this issue for candidates (if it is regulated) will almost always be found in the electoral law. In some countries, this issue is regulated in the Constitution, normally in a section specifically on elections.

Note that if you find information that corporate funding is banned from being used in election campaigns, but it is not explicitly stated or clear from the context that it relates specifically to political parties or candidates, code “NO” for both this and the preceding question.

If you cannot find information, code “ND”.

 

5

Is there a ban on donations from Trade Unions to political parties?

YES

 

NO

 

ND

If you find information that political parties are not allowed to receive donations from trade unions, workers’ organisations etc, code “YES”. Also, code “YES” if it is stated that such entities are banned from giving support, contributions or donations to political parties. 

Also, code “YES” if legislation includes an exhaustive list of allowed sources of income for political parties, and this does not include any of the above. By an “exhaustive list” is meant where it is stated something like “political parties are only allowed to receive income from the following sources” or (more vague) “parties may receive funding from the following sources”. If it says something like “allowed sources for political parties include...” it is not exhaustive. 

If you find information about allowed or banned sources for political parties and there is no mention about the sources mentioned above, code “NO”. 

Note that if you find information that trade union funding is banned from being used in election campaigns, but it is not explicitly stated or clear from the context that it relates specifically to political parties or candidates, code “NO” for both this and the following question.

If you have not found any information and you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.

 

6

Is there a ban on donations from Trade Unions to candidates?

YES

 

NO

 

ND

If you find information that candidates are not allowed to receive donations from trade unions, workers’ organisations etc, code “YES”. Also, code “YES” if it is stated that such entities are banned from giving support, contributions or donations to candidates. 

Also, code “YES” if legislation includes an exhaustive list of allowed sources of income for candidates, and this does not include any of the above. By an “exhaustive list” is meant where it is stated something like “candidates are only allowed to receive income from the following sources” or (more vague) “candidates may receive funding from the following sources”. If it says something like “allowed sources for candidates include...” it is not exhaustive.

If you find information about allowed or banned sources for candidates and there is no mention about the sources mentioned above, code “NO”.

Note that if you find information that from trade unions funding is banned from being used in election campaigns, but it is not explicitly stated or clear from the context that it relates specifically to political parties or candidates, code “NO” for both this and the preceding question.

If you have not found any information and you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.

 

7

Is there a ban on anonymous donations to political parties?

YES

 

NO, BUT LIMIT

 

NO

 

ND

If you find information that political parties are not allowed to receive donations from anonymous or unnamed sources, code “YES”. Also, code “YES” if it is stated that support, contributions or donations to political parties cannot be given anonymously. 

Also, code “YES” if it is regulated that political parties must be able to provide names or to identify the source of all donations (a de facto ban on anonymous donations).

Code “NO, BUT LIMIT” if it is stated that political parties can only receive anonymous donations if they do not exceed a certain limit.

Code “NO” if you find information about sources of funding and there is no mention of anonymous sources, if anonymous donations are explicitly allowed or if it is clear that there are no limitations on sources of funds at all.

If you have not found any information and you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.

 

8

Is there a ban on anonymous donations to candidates?

YES

 

NO, BUT LIMIT

 

NO

 

ND

If you find information that candidates are not allowed to receive donations from anonymous or unnamed sources, code “YES”. Also, code “YES” if it is stated that support, contributions or donations to candidates cannot be given anonymously. 

Also, code “YES” if it is regulated that candidates must be able to provide names or to identify the source of all donations (a de facto ban on anonymous donations).

Code “NO, BUT LIMIT” if it is stated that candidates can only receive anonymous donations if they do not exceed a certain limit.

Code “NO” if you find information about sources of funding and there is no mention of anonymous sources, if anonymous donations are explicitly allowed or if it is clear that there are no limitations on sources of funds at all.

If you cannot find information, code “ND”.

 9

Is there a ban on donations from corporations with government contracts to political parties? 

YES 

 

NO

 

ND

If you find information that political parties are not allowed to receive donations from corporations, companies or business enterprises that have public/government contracts, code “YES”. Also, code “YES” if it is stated that such entities are banned from giving support, contributions or donations to political parties. 

Also, code “YES” if legislation includes an exhaustive list of allowed sources of income for political parties, and this does not include the above. By an “exhaustive list” is meant where it is stated something like “political parties are only allowed to receive income from the following sources” or (more vague) “parties may receive funding from the following sources”. If it says something like “allowed sources for political parties include...” it is not exhaustive. 

If you find information about allowed or banned sources for political parties and there is no mention about the sources mentioned above, code “NO”

that if you find information that funding from companies with government contracts are banned from being used in election campaigns, but it is not explicitly stated or clear from the context that it relates specifically to political parties or candidates, code “NO” for both this and the following question.

Note that this question does not relate to donations from direct government sources such as ministries, government agencies or public companies. This is addressed in Q15.

If you have not found any information and you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.

 

10

Is there a ban on donations from corporations with government contracts to candidates? 

YES 

 

NO

 

ND

If you find information that candidates are not allowed to receive donations from corporations, companies or business enterprises that have public/government contracts, code “YES”. Also, code “YES” if it is stated that such entities are banned from giving support, contributions or donations to candidates. 

Also, code “YES” if legislation includes an exhaustive list of allowed sources of income for candidates, and this does not include the above. By an “exhaustive list” is meant where it is stated something like “candidates are only allowed to receive income from the following sources” or (more vague) “candidates may receive funding from the following sources”. If it says something like “allowed sources for candidates include...” it is not exhaustive. 

If you find information about allowed or banned sources for candidates and there is no mention about the sources mentioned above, code “NO”.

Note that if you find information that funding from companies with government contracts are banned from being used in election campaigns, but it is not explicitly stated or clear from the context that it relates specifically to political parties or candidates, code “NO” for both this and the following question.

Note that this question does not relate to donations from direct government sources such as ministries, government agencies or public companies. This is addressed in Q15.

If you have not found any information and you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.

 

11

Is there a ban on donations from corporations with partial government ownership to political parties? 

YES 

 

NO

 

ND

If you find information that political parties are not allowed to receive donations from corporations, companies or business enterprises that are partly owned or controlled by the government, code “YES”. Also, code “YES” if it is stated that such entities are banned from giving support, contributions or donations to political parties. 

Also, code “YES” if legislation includes an exhaustive list of allowed sources of income for political parties, and this does not include the above. By an “exhaustive list” is meant where it is stated something like “political parties are only allowed to receive income from the following sources” or (more vague) “parties may receive funding from the following sources”. If it says something like “allowed sources for political parties include...” it is not exhaustive. 

If you find information about allowed or banned sources for political parties and there is no mention about the sources mentioned above, code “NO”. If the regulations only ban donations from state-owned or public corporations etc, also code “NO”.

Note that if you find information that funding from companies with partial government ownership is banned from being used in election campaigns, but it is not explicitly stated or clear from the context that it relates specifically to political parties or candidates, code “NO” for both this and the following question.

Note that this question does not relate to donations from direct government sources such as ministries, government agencies or public companies. This is addressed in Q15.

If you have not found any information and you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.

12

Is there a ban on donations from corporations with partial government ownership to candidates?

YES 

 

NO

 

ND

If you find information that candidates are not allowed to receive donations from corporations, companies or business enterprises that are partly owned or controlled by the government, code “YES”. Also, code “YES” if it is stated that such entities are banned from giving support, contributions or donations to candidates. 

Also, code “YES” if legislation includes an exhaustive list of allowed sources of income for candidates, and this does not include the above. By an “exhaustive list” is meant where it is stated something like “candidates are only allowed to receive income from the following sources” or (more vague) “candidates may receive funding from the following sources”. If it says something like “allowed sources for candidates include...” it is not exhaustive. 

If you find information about allowed or banned sources for candidates and there is no mention about the sources mentioned above, code “NO”. If the regulations only ban donations from state-owned or public corporations etc, also code “NO”.

Note that if you find information that funding from companies with partial government ownership is banned from being used in election campaigns, but it is not explicitly stated or clear from the context that it relates specifically to political parties or candidates, code “NO” for both this and the following question.

Note that this question does not relate to donations from direct government sources such as ministries, government agencies or public companies (companies with full government ownership). This is addressed in Q15.

If you have not found any information and you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.

13

Is there a ban on donations from any other source?

LEGAL

ENTITIES

 

RELIGIOUS

ORGANISATIONS

 

ORGANISATIONS

CONNECTED

TO GAMBLING

 

CHARITIES

 

RECENTLY

FOUNDED

ORGANISATIONS

 

ORGANISATIONS IN DEBT

 

UNDERAGE

PERSONS

 

OTHER 

 

NO

 

ND

If you find that there is a ban on donations from all legal entities to political parties or candidates, code “LEGAL ENTITIES”. Give details in an external comment.

If you find that there is a ban on donations from religious organisations or entities to political parties or candidates, code “RELIGIOUS ORGANISATIONS”. Give details in an external comment.

If you find that there is a ban on donations from entities connected to betting or gambling to political parties or candidates, code “ORGANISATIONS CONNECTED TO GAMBLING”. Give details in an external comment.

If you find that there is a ban on donations from charities or philanthropic institutions to political parties or candidates, code “CHARITIES”. Give details in an external comment.

If you find that there is a ban on donations from entities that has not been registered for more than a determined period to political parties or candidates, code “RECENTLY FOUNDED ORGANISATIONS”. Give details in an external comment.

If you find that there is a ban on donations from persons who are under a certain age, to political parties or candidates, code “UNDERAGE PERSONS”. Give details in an external comment.

If you find that there is a ban on donations from entities that are in debt, to political parties or candidates, code “ORGANISATIONS IN DEBT”. Give details in an external comment.

If you find information of a ban on any form of contributions or donations not covered by the other options to either or both of political parties or candidates, code “OTHER”.

The ban could also be indirect – for example if only registered voters are allowed to contribute, then minors are as a consequence banned from making contributions. If you code “OTHER”, you must give details in an external comment. 

If you find regulations about sources of income for political parties or candidates but there is nothing not covered by preceding questions, code “NO”. 

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about other forms of donations, code “ND”.

14

Are there bans on state resources being used in favour or against a political party or candidate?

YES 

 

NO

 

ND

This question is different from Q15 in that this question relates not to resources being given to political parties or candidates, but to resources being used directly or indirectly in favour of a political party or candidate.

 Code “YES” if there are any regulations against the use of state resources to favour a particular political party or candidate, whether or not it is in relation to elections or who is using these resources. This could for example include;

  • A general ban on using state resources in favour of a political party or candidate
  • A ban on government vehicles being used in election campaigns
  • A ban on campaigning taking place at government facilities (unless same access given to all contestants)
  • A ban on civil servants or state employees to campaign while on duty/during office hours
  • A ban on public media giving biased coverage in relation to political parties or elections, or a requirement for public media to be neutral in its reporting (regulations of private media are not relevant in this regard).

(Give details in an external comment).

Note that this type of regulation may not be in the same place as information about political party or campaign finance. There may for example be a separate section on this issue, or information may be included among a list of election offences (such a list is often found towards the end of electoral laws).

The provision of regulated direct or indirect public funding to all eligible political party is not relevant for this question.

Code “NO” if you have access to regulations about elections (and if possible political party activities) and there is no mention of the use of state resources.

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about the use of state resources, code “ND”.

 15

Is there a ban on state resources being given to or received by political parties or  candidates (excluding regulated public funding)?

YES

 

SOMETIMES

 

NO

 

ND

Code “YES” if there are regulations against the giving of state resources to a particular political party/parties or candidate(s), whether or not it is in relation to elections.

Code “YES” it is stated that any or all of the following are banned from making contributions to political parties and/or candidates; government agencies, public institutions, Ministries, local government institutions, public companies (fully state owned). Also, code “YES” if there is a ban on political parties or candidates receiving such support. If a ban only relates to political parties or to candidates, code “YES” and give details in an external comment.

The provision of regulated direct or indirect public funding to all eligible political party is not relevant for this question. Nor are provisions that public resources must not be used in favour of a particular party/candidate or that state agencies/staff/media must be neutral (see Q14)

Code “NO” if you find information about sources of funding and there is no mention of the use of state resources or if is clear that there are no limitations on sources of funds at all.

If you have not found any information and you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.

16

Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party over a time period (not election specific)?

YES, FOR

NATURAL

PERSONS

 

YES, FOR

LEGAL

PERSONS

 

YES, FOR

BOTH

NATURAL

AND LEGAL

PERSONS

 

NO

 

ND

Code “YES, FOR NATURAL PERSONS” if there are any regulations limiting the amounts that an individual can donate/contribute to a political party for a certain time period, not specifically in relation to elections.

Code “YES, FOR LEGAL PERSONS “if there are any regulations limiting the amounts that an entity (organisations, companies etc.) can donate/contribute to a political party for a certain time period, not specifically in relation to elections.

 

Code “YES, FOR BOTH NATURAL AND LEGAL PERSONS” if there are regulations limiting the amounts that both and individual and an entity (organisations, companies etc.) can donate/contribute to a political party for a certain time period, not specifically in relation to elections 

 

Give information about the contribution limit in an external comment (in the currency used in the regulation, noting which one that is) and add what the time period the limit is for, and any other information.

Code “NO” if you find information about political party and campaign finance but there is no information of such limits, or if there seem to be no regulations of political party finance at all.

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about such limits, code “ND”.

17

If there is a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party over a time period (not election specific), what is the limit?

(LIMIT IN LOCAL

CURRENCY)

 

NO

 

ND

If you code “NO” on question 16, code “NA” on this question.

If you code “ND” on that question, code “ND”.

Give information about the contribution limit to political parties (in the currency used in the regulation, noting which one that is) and add information such as if the limit is per constituency, per candidate or per voter. If the limit is expressed as a calculation (for example 100 times the minimum wage), code that. 

If you find no information about the limit (such as if it is stated that the limit is to be set by an institution), code “ND” and give details in an external comment.

18

Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party in relation to an election?

YES, FOR

NATURAL

PERSONS

 

YES, FOR

LEGAL

PERSONS

 

YES, FOR

BOTH

NATURAL

AND LEGAL

PERSONS

 

NO

 

ND

Code “YES, FOR NATURAL PERSONS” if there are any regulations limiting the amounts that an individual can donate/contribute to a political party in relation to elections.

Code “YES, FOR LEGAL PERSONS “if there are any regulations limiting the amounts that an entity (organisations, companies etc.) can donate/contribute to a political party in relation to elections.

 

Code “YES, FOR BOTH NATURAL AND LEGAL PERSONS” if there are regulations limiting the amounts that both and individual and an entity (organisations, companies etc.) can donate/contribute to a political party in relation to elections.

Give information about the contribution limit in an external comment (in the currency used in the regulation, noting which one that is) and add what the time period the limit is for, and any other information.

Code “NO” if you find information about political party and campaign finance but there is no information of such limits, or if there seem to be no regulations of political party finance at all.

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about such limits, code “ND”.

19

If there is a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party in relation to an election, what is the limit?

(LIMIT IN LOCAL

CURRENCY)

 

NO

 

ND

If you code “NO” on question 18, code “NA” on this question.

If you code “ND” on that question, code “ND”.

Give information about the contribution limit to political parties (in the currency used in the regulation, noting which one that is) and add information such as if the limit is per constituency, per candidate or per voter. If the limit is expressed as a calculation (for example 100 times the minimum wage), code that.

 

If you find no information about the limit (such as if it is stated that the limit is to be set by an institution), code “ND” and give details in an external comment.

20

Is there a limit on the amount that can be contributed to a candidate?

YES, FOR

NATURAL

PERSONS

 

YES, FOR

LEGAL

PERSONS

 

YES, FOR

BOTH

NATURAL

AND   LEGAL

PERSONS

 

NO

 

ND

Code “YES, FOR NATURAL PERSONS” if there are any regulations limiting the amounts that an individual can donate/contribute to a candidate in relation to elections.

Code “YES, FOR LEGAL PERSONS “if there are any regulations limiting the amounts that an entity (organisations, companies etc.) can donate/contribute to a candidate in relation to elections.

 

Code “YES, FOR BOTH NATURAL AND LEGAL PERSONS” if there are regulations limiting the amounts that both and individual and an entity (organisations, companies etc.) can donate/contribute to a political party in relation to elections.

Give information about the contribution limit to candidates in an external comment (in the currency used in the regulation, noting which one that is) and add information such as if the limit is per constituency, or per voter. If the limit is expressed as a calculation (for example 100 times the minimum wage), note that.

Code “NO” if you find information about campaign finance but there is no information of such limits, or if there seem to be no regulations of candidate finance at all.

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about such limits, code “ND”.

21

If there is a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a candidate, what is the limit?

(LIMIT IN LOCAL

CURRENCY)

 

NO

 

ND

If you code “NO” on question 20, code “NA” on this question.

If you code “ND” on that question, code “ND”.

Give information about the contribution limit to candidates (in the currency used in the regulation, noting which one that is) and add information such as if the limit is per constituency, per candidate or per voter. If the limit is expressed as a calculation (for example 100 times the minimum wage), code that.

22

Is there a limit on the amount a candidate can contribute to their own election campaign?

DONATION

LIMIT FOR

PRIVATE

PERSONS

APPLY

 

SPECIFIC

LIMIT FOR

CANDIDATES

 

NO

If you have coded “NO” to QXX, code NO. If there is a limit on the amount that can be donated to candidates, but it is not mentioned that this limit applies to the candidates themselves, code “NO”. 

If it is mentioned that an existing limit on the amount that can be donated to candidates also applies to the candidates themselves, code “DONATION LIMIT FOR PRIVATE PERSONS APPLY”.

If it is mentioned that there is a specific limit on the amount that a candidate can contribute to her/his own campaign, code “SPECIFIC LIMIT FOR CANDIDATES”. 

If it is regulated that candidates must transfer donations to a specific campaign account, but not mention of a limit on the amount that can be transferred, code “NO”, and add information about the regulation in the comments section.

If you have not found any information and you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.

23

Is there a limit on in-kind donations to political parties?

YES

 

SOMETIMES

 

NO

 

ND

If there is a provision that donations can only be given to political parties in the form of cash or monetary transfers, or that political parties can only receive donations in the form of cash or monetary transfers, or if it is stated that any donations in the form of good and services are prohibited, code “YES”.

If you have answered “YES” to either Q17 or Q18, and regulations provide that the value of donations in the form of goods or services should be included in the value of this donation limit(s), code “YES”

If there are provisions that some forms of donations of goods or services are prohibited, such as the use of vehicles or professional services, code “SOMETIMES”. Do not chose this option if the only limitation relates to the source of these donations (such as government agencies or corporations), as this is covered by other questions.

If some forms of in-kind donations are prohibited, or that some in-kind donations are included in donation limit to political parties, code “SOMETIMES”.

If the list of permitted sources of party income include donations in the form of good and services, and there is no limitation on the type of such donations that can be given or of their value, code “NO”.

If there is no mention at all about donations in the form of goods or services in the regulations, code “NO”.

If you cannot find information, code “ND”.

24

Is there a limit on in-kind donations to candidates?

YES

 

SOMETIMES

 

NO

 

ND 

If there is a provision that donations can only be given to candidates in the form of cash or monetary transfers, or that candidates can only receive donations in the form of cash or monetary transfers, or if it is stated that any donations in the form of good and services are prohibited, code “YES”.

If you have answered “YES” to Q20, and regulations provide that the value of donations in the form of goods or services should be included in the value of this donation limit(s), code “YES”

If there are provisions that some forms of donations of goods or services are prohibited, such as the use of vehicles or professional services, code “SOMETIMES”. Do not chose this option if the only limitation relates to the source of these donations (such as government agencies or corporations), as this is covered by other questions.

If some forms of in-kind donations are prohibited, or that some in-kind donations are included in donation limit to candidates, code “SOMETIMES”.

If the list of permitted sources of party income include donations in the form of good and services, and there is no limitation on the type of such donations that can be given or of their value, code “NO”.

If there is no mention at all about donations in the form of goods or services in the regulations, code “NO”.

If you cannot find information, code “ND”.

25

Are there provisions regarding political parties engaging in commercial enterprises?

YES

 

SOMETIMES

 

NO

 

ND

If there is a regulation that political parties are banned from participating or engaging in any commercial or business activities, code “YES”.

If legislation includes an exhaustive list of allowed sources of income for political parties, and this does not include income from business or commercial activities, code “YES”. By an “exhaustive list” is meant where it is stated something like “political parties are only allowed to receive income from the following sources” or (more vague) “political parties may receive funding from the following sources”. If it says something like “allowed sources for political parties include...” it is not exhaustive. 

If it is stated that political parties may engage in certain commercial activities, for example only relating to printing, communication or publishing, code “SOMETIMES”.

If there are provisions that political parties are allowed to engage in commercial or business activities, without any further details or limitations, code “NO”.

If there is no mention about the engagement of political parties in commercial or business activities, code “NO”

If you have not found any information but you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.

26

Are there restrictions regarding political parties taking loans in relation to election campaigns?

YES

 

SOMETIMES

 

NO

 

ND

If the regulations note that political parties are banned from taking loans, code “YES”.

If legislation includes an exhaustive list of allowed sources of income, and this does not include loans, code “YES”. By an “exhaustive list” is meant where it is stated something like “political parties are only allowed to receive income from the following sources” or (vaguer) “political parties may receive funding from the following sources”. If it says something like “allowed sources for political parties include...” it is not exhaustive. 

If regulations state that loans are permitted but with certain restrictions, for example from what types of institutions that loans may be obtained, or if there is a maximum amount that may be raised as loans, code “SOMETIMES”.

If the regulations state that loans may be obtained by political parties or candidates, and no limitations are provided, code “NO”.

If the issue of loans is not addressed in the regulations regarding income for political parties, code “NO”.

If you have not found any information but you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.

27

Are there restrictions regarding candidates taking loans in relation to election campaigns?

YES

 

SOMETIMES

 

NO

 

ND

If the regulations note that candidates are banned from taking loans, code “YES”.

If legislation includes an exhaustive list of allowed sources of income, and this does not include loans, code “YES”. By an “exhaustive list” is meant where it is stated something like “candidates are only allowed to receive income from the following sources” or (vaguer) “candidates may receive funding from the following sources”. If it says something like “allowed sources for candidates include...” it is not exhaustive. 

If regulations state that loans are permitted but with certain restrictions, for example from what types of institutions that loans may be obtained, or if there is a maximum amount that may be raised as loans, code “SOMETIMES”.

If the regulations state that loans may be obtained by candidates, and no limitations are provided, code “NO”.

If the issue of loans is not addressed in the regulations regarding income for candidates, code “NO”.

If you have not found any information but you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.

28

Are donors to political parties/candidates subsequently restricted from participating in public tender/public procurement processes?

YES

 

SOMETIMES

 

NO

 

ND

If there are provisions that individuals or entities that have made donations to political parties or candidates are banned from participating in public tender or public procurement processes, code “YES”.

If there are provisions that such individuals or entities are banned from such participation in some cases, code “SOMETIMES”, and give details in an external comment. This can for example be if limitations only apply if they have made donations during a certain time period or above a certain amount, or if they are banned from participating in public tender/procurement processes of a value above a certain amount. 

If there are no limitations of this kind, code “NO”.

Note that information about this issue is normally not included in legislation used to answer many other questions, for example political party, electoral or political finance legislation. It is more likely that regulations on this issue is included in legislation on public procurement, or on administrative processes.

If you have not found any information and you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.

29

Are there provisions requiring donations to go through the banking system?

YES

 

SOMETIMES

 

NO

 

ND

If there are provisions that all donations to political parties AND candidates must be made via a bank, or that they must be made via bank transfers or cheques, or if donations must not be made in cash, code “YES”. Do the same if rules provide that political parties AND candidates must only receive donations that are made in this way. Also, code “YES” if it is noted that such restrictions apply to all monetary or “non-in-kind” donations.

If there are provisions that some donations must be made in this way, code “SOMETIMES”. This can for example be the case if only donations to parties but not candidates must be done in this way, or if this only applies to donations above a certain level. Give details in an external comment.

If there are no provisions that any donations must be given or received as described above, code “NO”

If you cannot find information, code “ND”.

30

Are there provisions for direct public funding to political parties?

REGULARLY

 

IN RELATION

TO

CAMPAIGNS

 

BOTH

 

NO

 

ND

Code “REGULARLY” if it is it regulated that political parties are entitled to provision of direct public funding [money] that is provided regularly (normally annually or more often), not specifically related to election campaigns. 

Code “IN RELATION TO CAMPAIGNS” if it is it regulated that political parties are entitled to provision of direct public funding [money] that is provided specifically related to election campaigns. 

Code “BOTH” if both of these types of direct public funding are provided.

Code “NO” if a list of permitted sources of income of a political party does not include any mention of public funding and no information about public funding can be found. Also, code “NO” if a law mentions that public funding “may” or “could” be provided, but then make an external comment explaining this. 

If you cannot find information, code “ND”. 

31

If there are provisions for direct public funding, what are the eligibility criteria?

REPRESENTATION

IN

ELECTED

BODY

 

SHARE OF VOTES IN

PREVIOUS

ELECTION

 

SHARE OF VOTES IN

NEXT

ELECTION

 

SHARE OF

SEATS IN

PREVIOUS

ELECTION 

 

SHARE OF

SEATS IN

NEXT

ELECTION

 

NUMBER OF

CANDIDATES NOMINATED

 

NUMBER OF

MEMBERS 

 

SUBMITTED

FINANCIAL

REPORT(S)

 

OTHER

 

NA

 

ND 

 

(multiple answers allowed)

If you code “NO” on Q30, code “NA” on this question. If you code “ND” on Q30, code “ND”.  

Give the basis used to establish eligibility for political parties to access direct funding (or “who has the right to receive”). Code all options that apply, provide details in an external comment. 

If the eligibility criteria is that a political party must have representation in an elected body, code “REPRESENTATION IN ELECTED BODY”. 

If the eligibility is that a party must have won a certain share of votes in the preceding election, code” SHARE OF VOTES IN PREVIOUS ELECTION” including the percentage that is required.

If the eligibility is that a party must win a certain share of votes in the next election, code” SHARE OF VOTES IN NEXT ELECTION” including the percentage that is required (this is sometimes used when public funding is provided after an election).

If the eligibility is based on a certain number of seats or “representation” that each party holds or won in the preceding election, code SHARE OF SEATS IN PREVIOUS ELECTION” including the percentage that is required. 

If the eligibility is based on a certain number of seats or “representation” that each party wins in the next election, code SHARE OF SEATS IN NEXT ELECTION” including the percentage that is required (this is sometimes used when public funding is provided after an election).

If eligibility is established by the number of candidates presented by the party (in the preceding or forthcoming election) code “NO. OF CANDIDATES”, noting the number of candidates needed. Also use this code if eligibility is based on a political party is required to present candidates in a certain number of districts etc.

If eligibility is established by the number of members of the party, code “NUMBER OF MEMBERS”, noting the number of members needed.

If political parties are only eligible to receive public funding if they have submitted financial reports, code “SUBMITTED FINANCIAL REPORT(S)”, and give details in an external comment.

If another criterion is used, code “OTHER” (and give an external comment to specify.

If more than one criterion is used, code all the applicable options. 

If you cannot find information, or if it is stated that the eligibility criteria is decided by a particular institution, code “ND”.

In case the answer “BOTH” was given in Q30 and the allocation criteria is different for the two types of direct public funding, please state clearly what the regulations are for campaign support and for regular assistance separately in an external comment.

32

If there are provisions for direct public funding to political parties, what is the allocation calculation?

EQUAL 

 

NUMBER OF

CANDIDATES

 

SHARE OF

SEATS

 

OTHER

 

NA

 

ND 

 

(multiple answers allowed)

If you code “NO” on Q34, code “NA” on this question. If you code “ND” on that question, code “ND”.

If it says that access is provided equally to all, CODE “EQUAL”.

If the time/access is allocated depending on the number of candidates that each political party has nominated/presented, code “NUMBER OF CANDIDATES”.

If the time/access is allocated depending on the share or number of seats that each political party holds in an elected body, code “SHARE OF SEATS”.

If something else is used as the basis for allocation, code “OTHER”.

If more than one criterion is used, code all the applicable options.

If there are details about how the access should be divided between political parties, provide a brief explanation in an external comment.

If there are no details, code “ND”.

33

If there are provisions for direct public funding to political parties, are there provisions for how it should be used (“ear marking”)?

CAMPAIGN

SPENDING

 

ONGOING

PARTY

ACTIVITIES

 

INTRA-PARTY

INSTITUTION

 

RESEARCH

AND POLICY

INITIATIVES

 

OTHER

 

NO 

 

NA

 

ND 

 

(multiple answers allowed)

If you code “NO” on Q30, code “NA” on this question. If you code “ND” on Q30, code “ND”.

If it is noted that direct public funding provided to political parties must only be used for certain purposes, code which. Code all options that apply, provide details in an external comment.

If it is stated that the money must be used for election campaign purposes, code “CAMPAIGN SPENDING”. 

If it is noted that the money must be used for ongoing party activities such as administration, public awareness campaigns, policy platform development, voter interaction or membership drives, code “ONGOING PARTY ACTIVITIES”.

If funds are given directly to or explicitly intended for the use of particular institutions within political parties, such as Youth or Women’s Wings or research or policy institutions within parties, code “INTRA-PARTY INSTITUTION”. Provide additional information in an external comment.

If funds are specifically earmarked towards activities related to policy platform development

(therefore, excluding the other activities mentioned for “ONGOING PARTY ACTIVITIES”) code “RESEARCH AND POLICY INITIATIVES”

 

If some other form of earmarking is noted, or if it is noted that public funds must not be used for a certain purpose, code “OTHER” and give an external comment.

If funds are earmarked for several uses, code all the applicable options.

If there are no provisions for what direct public funding must be used, code “NO”.

If you cannot find information, code “ND”.

In case the answer “BOTH” was given in Q30 and the allocation criteria is different for the two types of direct public funding, please state clearly what the regulations are for campaign support and for regular assistance separately in an external comment.

34

Are there provisions for free or subsidized access to media for political parties?

YES

 

NO

 

ND

Code “YES” if political parties are entitled to free or subsidised access to public or private TV, radio, newspaper or other media, regardless of whether this is in relation to election campaigns or not. Note details in an external comment. A provision that media outlets should treat political parties without bias would not be relevant for this question.

Add details as external comments, for example if media access is extended not only to public but also to private media).

Information about this issue is sometimes not listed together with general political party or campaign finance provisions; sometimes it is regulated in an electoral law (or similar) in paragraphs that relate to the role of media in elections.

Code “NO” if you find information about political party finance and media in elections but there is no information of such benefits. 

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.

35

If there are provisions for political parties free or subsidized access to media, what criteria determine access allocation? 

EQUAL

 

SEATS

 

VOTES

 

MEMBERS

 

CANDIDATES

 

OTHER [free

text]

 

NA

 

ND

 

(multiple answers allowed)

If you code “NO” on Q30, code “NA” on this question. If you code “ND” on Q30, code “ND”.

This question refers to how the public funding is distributed between those that have a right to receive it.

Public funding can be provided equally to all eligible political parties; totally in proportion to something like seats or votes won; or (most commonly) a combination of the two. There are a lot of different ways that allocation can be done. If you find information about the allocation criteria, give information as below.

If the regulation is that all political parties receive the same amount, enter “EQUAL”. Do the same if it is simply stated that the funds are allocated “equally”. 

If it is stated that the funds are allocated proportionally, note the basis for such proportionality. If it for example is stated that the allocation is based on the number of seats or the “representation” of each party, enter “SEATS”. 

If it stated that the funds are allocated by the number of votes received (in the preceding or forthcoming election), enter “VOTES”. If it is allocated by the number of members of the party, enter “MEMBERS”. 

If it is allocated by the number of candidates presented by the party (in the preceding or forthcoming election) enter “CANDIDATES”.  

If another criterion is used, enter “OTHER” (and give an internal comment).

If more than one criterion is used (for example if some of the proportional funds is distributed by one criteria and some by another, enter “COMBINATION” (and give an external comment). 

If some of the funds are provided equally and some proportionally, also note the percentage of the funds that are allocated proportionally.

If you cannot find information, code “ND”.

In case the answer “BOTH” was given in Q30 and the allocation criteria is different for the two types of direct public funding, please state clearly what the regulations are for campaign support and for regular assistance separately in an external comment.

36

Are there provisions for free or subsidized access to media for candidates?

YES

 

NO

 

ND

Code “YES” if candidates are entitled to free or subsidised access to public or private TV, radio, newspaper or other media, regardless of whether this is in relation to election campaigns or not. Note details in an external comment. A provision that media outlets should treat candidates without bias would not be relevant for this question. 

Add details as external comments, for example if media access is extended not only to public but also to private media).

Information about this issue is sometimes not listed together with general political party or campaign finance provisions; sometimes it is regulated in an electoral law (or similar) in paragraphs that relate to the role of media in elections.

Code “NO” if you find information about political party finance and media in elections but there is no information of such benefits. 

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.

37

Are there provisions for any other form of indirect public funding?  

YES

 

NO

 

ND

If you find information of any form of support, assistance or benefit from the state to either or both of political parties or of candidates not covered by the preceding questions, code “YES”. 

This could for example be:

  • Political parties/candidates being exempt from tax or custom duties, or receiving other tax benefits (this could include statements that political parties or candidates do not have to pay income tax or VAT)
  • Donors to political parties/candidates receiving tax benefits from donations (for example that donors can deduct donations to parties or candidates from their taxes).
  • Provision of free or subsidized transport, postage, office space, areas for events, poster. 

If you code “YES”, you must give details in an external comment. 

If you find regulations about state assistance to political parties or candidates but there is nothing not covered by preceding questions, code “NO”. If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about other forms of donations, code “ND”.

38

Is the provision of direct public funding to political parties related to gender equality among candidates?

YES

 

NO

 

NA

 

ND

If you code “NO” on Q30, code “NA” on this question. If you code “ND” on that question, code “ND”.

Code “YES” if there are provisions that political parties will receive additional public funding if they meet criteria relating to gender equality among their candidates, or if political parties risk losing all or some of their public funding if they do not reach such criteria. Explain the criteria briefly, noting both the sanction/reward and the definition of gender equality to be used. 

Examples include reduced funding if gender inequality among candidates/ extra funding added for parties with gender equality among candidates/earmarking of funds for gender equality activities. A search in each law for “women”, “gender” and “sex” may be useful.

Code “NO” if you find no information in legislation or other sources that a connection between direct public funding and the gender equality is in use.

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.

39

Are there provisions for other financial advantages to encourage gender equality in political parties?

FUNDING TO

WOMEN’S

WINGS

 

INCREASED

MEDIA

ACCESS

 

TAX BENEFITS

 

REDUCED

NOMINATION

FEE

 

OTHER

 

NO

 

ND 

 

(multiple answers allowed)

This question relates to regulations that are explicitly aimed at increasing gender equality in the activities or organisation of political parties. 

If there is provision that public funding (direct or indirect) is to be given especially to the Women’s Wing (or similar) of a political party, code “FUNDING OF WOMEN’S WING”.

If it is stated that women candidates or that political parties that fulfil certain criteria regarding gender equality benefit from increased access to media, code “INCREASED MEDIA ACCESS”. 

If it is stated that women candidates or that political parties that fulfil certain criteria regarding gender equality benefit from tax benefits, or that donors to women candidates or political parties that fulfil certain criteria regarding gender equality receive tax benefits, code “TAX BENEFITS.

If it is stated that women candidates or that political parties that fulfil certain criteria regarding gender equality benefit from reduced candidate nomination fees, code “REDUCED NOMINATION FEES”. 

If it is stated that women candidates or that political parties that fulfil certain criteria regarding gender equality benefit from other forms of regulation, code “OTHER”. 

Give additional information in an external comment (you must do so if you have coded “other”).

A search in each law for the terms “women”, “gender” and “sex” may be useful.

If more than one alternative applies, code all of them.

Code “NO” if you find no information in legislation or other sources that financial benefits to increase gender equality is in use.

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.

40

Is there a ban on vote buying?

YES

 

NO

 

ND

Code “YES” if there is a ban on bribing or influencing/inducing voters to vote in a certain manner.

Note that this information is not normally found among regular political party or campaign finance provisions. Often bans of this type are found in a list of election offences or similar, which tends to be placed towards the end of election laws.

Code “NO” if no such provisions exist. Also, code “NO” if there is a ban on political parties or candidates to incur certain expenses such as charitable spending in relation to elections, but there is no necessary connection made between such spending and exerting influence on how people vote.

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about other vote buying (or election offences), code “ND”.

41

Are there limits on the amount a political party can spend?

YES

 

NO

 

ND

Code “YES” if there are any regulations limiting the amounts that political parties can spend, either for a certain time period or in relation to an election. Give details in an external comment.

Code “NO” if you find information about political party and campaign finance but there is no information of such limits, or if there seem to be no regulations of political party finance at all.

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about such limits, code “ND”.

42

If there are limits on the amount a political party can spend,  what is the limit?

[free text] 

Amount in local currency 

 

NA

 

ND

If you code “NO” on Q41 code “NA” on this question. If you code “ND” on that question, code “ND”.

Give information about the spending limit for political parties (in the currency used in the regulation, noting which one that is) and add if the limit is for a certain time period, for an election and also if it is per constituency or per voter etc. If a certain formula is used to calculate the spending limit, include this in an external comment.

If you find no information about the limit (such as if it is stated that the limit is to be set by an institution), code “ND” and give details in an external comment.

43

Are there limits on the amount a candidate can spend?

YES

 

NO

 

ND

Code “YES” if there are any regulations limiting the amounts that an election candidate can spend, either for a certain time period or in relation to an election. Code “YES” even if such limits only applies to certain candidates (give details in an external comment).

Code “NO” if you find information about candidate finance but there is no information of such limits, or if there seem to be no regulations of candidate finance at all.

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about such limits, code “ND”.

44

If there are limits on the amount a candidate can spend, what is the limit for spending?

[free text] Amount in local currency 

 

NA

 

ND

If you code “NO” on Q43, code “NA” on this question. If you code “ND” on that question, code “ND”.

Give information about the spending limit for candidates (in the currency used in the regulation, noting which one that is) and add if the limit is for a certain time period, for an election and also if it is per constituency or per voter etc. If a certain formula is used to calculate the spending limit, include this in an external comment.

If you find no information about the limit (such as if it is stated that the limit is to be set by an institution), code “ND” and give details in an external comment.

45

Are there limits on the amount that third parties can spend on election campaign activities?     

THIRD

PARTIES

BANNED

FROM

CAMPAIGN

SPENDING

 

SPENDING

LIMIT EXISTS

 

SPENDING

LIMIT FOR

PARTY/CANDIDATE

INCLUDES

SPENDING BY OTHERS ON

THEIR

BEHALF,

 

NO

If there is a provision that third parties are banned from engaging in any campaign activities, code “THIRD PARTIES BANNED FROM CAMPAIGN SPENDING”.

If there is a limited specifically on how much third parties can spend, code “SPENDING LIMIT EXISTS” and give details about the limit in an external comment.

If it is regulated that a campaign spending limit for political parties and/or candidates also applies to third parties campaigning on their behalf, code “SPENDING LIMIT FOR PARTY/CANDIDATE INCLUDES SPENDING BY OTHERS ON THEIR BEHALF”

By “third party” is here meant any person or entity other than a political party or candidate, or a person acting on behalf of a party or candidate in an official capacity (such as a party official or a candidate representative) which engages in election campaigning or in spending resources in relation to an election campaign in favour of or against a political party or contestant.

If you cannot find information, code “ND”.

 46

Are there limits on traditional media advertising spending relation to election campaigns?

YES, FOR

POLITICAL

PARTIES

 

YES, FOR

CANDIDATES

 

YES, FOR

THIRD

PARTIES

 

NO

 

ND

By “traditional media” is meant print and broadcast media.

If there are regulations that political parties cannot spend more than a certain amount, or more than a certain percentage of their total campaign spending, on traditional media advertising, code “Yes, for political parties”. 

Also, code “YES, for political parties” if there are regulations that political parties cannot purchase more than a certain number of minutes per day or other limitations on the amount of traditional media advertising that can be purchased. Also, code “YES, for political parties” if there is a regulation that political parties cannot spend more than a certain share of their advertising spending on any one traditional media outlet.

If there are regulations that candidates cannot spend more than a certain amount, or more than a certain percentage of their total campaign spending, on traditional media advertising, code “Yes, candidates”. 

Also, code “Yes, for candidates” if there are regulations that candidates cannot purchase more than a certain number of minutes per day or other limitations on the amount of traditional media advertising that can be purchased. Also, code “YES, for candidates” if there is a regulation that political parties cannot spend more than a certain share of their advertising spending on any one traditional media outlet.

If there are limitations on the amounts spent by third-parties on traditional media in election campaigns, code “Yes, for third parties”. 

If there are no limitations on media advertising by parties/candidates, code “NO”.

47

Are there limits on online media advertising spending in relation to election campaigns?

YES, FOR

POLITICAL

PARTIES

 

YES, FOR

CANDIDATES

 

YES, FOR

THIRD

PARTIES

 

NO

 

ND

By “online media” is meant internet/online and social media.

If there are regulations that parties cannot spend more than a certain amount, or more than a certain percentage of their total campaign spending, on online media advertising, code “YES, FOR PARTIES”.

Also, code “YES, FOR PARTIES” if there are regulations that parties cannot purchase more than a certain number of minutes per day or other limitations on the amount of online media advertising that can be purchased. Also, code “YES, FOR PARTIES” if there is a regulation that candidates cannot spend more than a certain share of their advertising spending on any one online media outlet.

If there are regulations that candidates cannot spend more than a certain amount, or more than a certain percentage of their total campaign spending, on online media advertising, code “YES, FOR CANDIDATES”. 

Also, code “YES, FOR CANDIDATES” if there are regulations that candidates cannot purchase more than a certain number of minutes per day or other limitations on the amount of online media advertising that can be purchased. 

Also, code “YES, FOR CANDIDATES” if there is a regulation that candidates cannot spend more than a certain share of their advertising spending on any one online media outlet.

If there are limitations on the amounts spent by third-parties on online media in election campaigns, code “YES FOR THIRD PARTIES”. 

If there are no limitations on media advertising by parties/candidates/third-parties, code “NO”.

If you cannot find information, code “ND”.

48

Do any other restrictions on online media advertisement (beyond limits) exist?

YES

 

NO

 

ND

By “online media” is meant internet/online and social media.

If there are any restrictions on the use of online media other than that noted in the preceding question for political parties or candidates, code “YES”. This can include restrictions on who advertising is made with (for example certain media companies or foreign powers), or medium for placement of advertising (for example Facebook).

49

IN PRACTICE: What proportion of total spending reported to the oversight agency in relation to the last campaign period was spent on media by the two presidential candidates gaining the most votes?

NO REPORTS

AVAILABLE

 

PERCENTAGE 

 

NOT POSSIBLE

TO

CALCULATE

 

NA

 

ND

Note that the IN-PRACTICE questions should only be answered for a very limited set of countries. This would have been agreed upon beforehand and would be made clear in your contract. 

If you have coded “NO” on Q51, code “NA”. Code “NA” if there are only reporting requirements for candidates other than in presidential elections, since this question only deals with presidential candidates.

Check if post-election financial reports from presidential candidates in relation to the last campaign period are available on the website of the oversight agency (or on party/candidate websites). If not, code “NO REPORTS AVAILABLE”

Check online to see which candidates that gained the most votes in the most recent election.

For each of these candidates, calculate the total amount they reported to have spent during the last campaign. Then calculate the amount they reported to have spent on “media” and/or “advertising” during the last campaign. Then calculate the percentage of media spending out of total spending (if they spent 1 million on media and 5 million in total, that amounts to 1/5 = 20%).

Calculate the unweighted average of the spending on media for the candidates (if they each spent 30% and 50% on media, the unweighted average is (30+50)/2=40%.

If it is not possible to calculate the share spent on media, for example if reports do not note spending per category, or if reporting is very detailed on an invoice basis, code “NOT POSSIBLE TO CALCULATE”

If you cannot find information, code “ND”.

 

50

Do political parties have to report regularly on their finances?

YES

 

NO

 

ND

Note that this question does not relate to any financial reports, statements or disclosure that political parties need to make in relation to election campaigns (such as submitting certain information before or after an election date).

If there any requirements that political parties or any institution within political parties must provide certain financial information, submits reports or makes financial statements regularly (often annually), code “YES”. Add any details in an external comment.

If political party or political finance legislation makes no mention of political parties having to submit any financial records, reports or statements, or if a written source or expert witness states that there are no such requirements, code “NO”. 

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.

 

51

Do political parties have to report on their finances in relation to election campaigns?

YES

 

NO

 

ND

Note that this question does not relate to any financial reports, statements or disclosure that political parties need to make regularly (such as annually), only such made in relation to election campaigns (such as submitting certain information before or after an election date).

If there are any requirements that political parties or any institution within political parties must provide certain financial information, submits reports or makes financial statements in relation to an election campaign, code “YES”. Add any details in an external comment.

If political party, political finance or electoral legislation makes no mention of political parties having to submit any financial records, reports or statements, or if a written source or expert witness states that there are no such requirements, code “NO”. 

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.

 

52

Do candidates have to report on their campaign’s finances?

YES

 

NO

 

ND

If there are any requirements that candidates must submit certain financial information, submits reports or makes financial statements in relation to an election campaign, code “YES”. 

If, political finance or electoral legislation makes no mention of candidates having to submit any financial records, reports or statements, or if a written source or expert witness states that there are no such requirements, code “NO”. 

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.

 

53

Do third parties have to submit financial reports on election campaigning? 

THIRD

PARTIES ARE

BANNED

FROM

PARTICIPATING

IN

CAMPAIGNS 

 

YES

 

NO

 

SOMETIMES

 

ND

If you coded “THIRD PARTIES BANNED FROM CAMPAIGN SPENDING” in Q45, code “THIRD PARTIES ARE BANNED FROM PARTICIPATING IN CAMPAIGNS”. 

If there are provisions that third parties are required to submit financial reports before, during or after electoral campaigns, code “YES”. 

If only some third parties have to do so, for example if they have a particular relationship to a political party or candidate, if they engage in certain types of campaign activities or if they spend above a certain amount, code “SOMETIMES”. 

If there is no such ban, and no information that third parties have to submit financial reports, code “NO”.

For a definition of “third party”, see Q45.

If you cannot find information, code “ND”.

54

Do lobbying entities have to disclose information on contributions to political parties or candidates?

YES 

 

NO

 

SOMETIMES

 

NO

REGISTRATION

SYSTEM

FOR

LOBBYISTS

EXIST

 

ND

 

If there is no registration system for lobbying individuals or entities in the country, code “NO REGISTRATION SYSTEM FOR LOBBYISTS EXIST”.

 

If there are provisions that lobbying entities have to disclose information about donations to political parties or candidates, code “YES”. 

If there are provisions that lobbying entities have to disclose information about donations to political parties or candidates in certain cases, code “SOMETIMES”, and leave details in an external comment (for example of the disclosure requirement only relates to certain types of elections or to donations above a certain amount). 

If there are no provisions of this kind, code “NO”

Note that reporting requirements for lobbyists may not be included in legislation used to answer many other questions, such as political party, electoral or political finance legislation, but may instead be included in specific legislation on lobbying.

If you have not found any information and you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.

55

IN PRACTICE: What share of political parties required to submit financial reports in relation to the last election campaign did so?

% [free text]

 

NA

 

ND

Note that the IN-PRACTICE questions should only be answered for a very limited set of countries. This would have been agreed upon beforehand and would be made clear in your contract. 

If you coded “NO” to Q51, code “NA”.

If you coded “YES” to Q51, establish which political parties that were required to submit financial reports in relation to the last election campaign. 

Then calculate what percentage of political parties required to submit financial reports in relation to the last election campaign that actually did so, and code accordingly.

If you cannot find information, code “ND”.

 

56

IN PRACTICE: What share of candidates required to submit financial reports in relation to the last election campaign did so?

% [free text]

 

NA

 

ND

Note that the IN-PRACTICE questions should only be answered for a very limited set of countries. This would have been agreed upon beforehand and would be made clear in your contract. 

If you coded “NO” to Q52, code “NA”.

If you coded “YES” to Q52, establish how many candidates that were required to submit financial reports in relation to the last election campaign. 

Then calculate what percentage of candidates required to submit financial reports in relation to the last election campaign that actually did so, and code accordingly.

If you cannot find information, code “ND”.

Treat reporting and reporting requirements for candidate lists as such reporting and reporting requirements for individual candidates.

 

57

Is information in reports from political parties or candidates to be made public? 

 

YES

 

SOMETIMES

 

NO

 

NA

 

ND

If you code “NO” on both Q51 and Q52, code “NA” on this question. If you code “ND” on all those questions, code “ND”.

If it is stated that all of the submitted information submitted is made public, including being printed in a gazette, put on a website or made available at an office, code “YES”. Also, code “YES” if it is stated that information in reports should be made public, and no limitations are noted. Also, code “YES” if political parties are required to make information public themselves in whatever format.

If there is any information in reports that does not need to be made public, code “SOMETIMES”, and note any limitations in an external comment. 

Note in an external comment if there is a timeline when reports should be published, and if the publication format is specified (such as electronic publication).

If there are no provision that submitted financial reports is made public in political party, political finance or electoral laws (as applicable), or if a written source or expert witness states that there are no such requirements, code “NO”. Also, code “NO” if it explicitly stated that the received information will be confidential (or similar wording). 

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.

 

58

IN PRACTICE: Have campaign finance reports submitted by political parties and/or candidates in the last election been made publicly available?

YES, ALL

SUBMITTED

REPORTS

ARE MADE

PUBLIC

 

SOME

SUBMITTED

REPORTS

ARE MADE

PUBLIC

 

NO

SUBMITTED

REPORTS

ARE MADE

PUBLIC

 

NO REPORTS

SUBMITTED

 

PARTIES

MAKE

REPORTS

PUBLIC

THEMSELVES

 

Note that the IN-PRACTICE questions should only be answered for a very limited set of countries. This would have been agreed upon beforehand and would be made clear in your contract. 

Enquire with the oversight institution whether submitted financial reports by political parties and candidates are made public.

Refer to your answer to Q55 and Q56 above regarding the actual submission of reports by political parties and candidates. If no reports were submitted, code “NO REPORTS SUBMITTED”.

If all the submitted financial reports that were submitted are publicly available, code “YES, ALL

SUBMITTED REPORTS ARE MADE PUBLIC”.

If some but not all the submitted financial reports that were submitted are publicly available, code “SOME SUBMITTED REPORTS ARE MADE PUBLIC”.

If none of the submitted reports are publicly available, code “NO SUBMITTED REPORTS ARE MADE PUBLIC”.

 

If no reports are made available by the oversight institution, but you find evidence that political parties did in practice make reports public themselves, code “PARTIES MAKE REPORTS PUBLIC THEMSELVES”.

 

Note details about the format of how the reports are made publicly available by the oversight institution in an external comment.

If you cannot find information, code “ND”.

59

Must reports from political parties and/or candidates reveal the identity of donors?

YES

 

SOMETIMES

 

NO

 

NA

 

ND

If you code “NO” on all of Q50, 51 and 52, code “NA” on this question. If you code “ND” on all those questions, code “ND”.

Code “YES” if there is a requirement for political parties or candidates to report on the identity of the persons or entities that have provided donations or contributions. This could include a general provision to reveal the identity of donors or a more specific requirement to put names, address etc of contributors in financial reports being made. 

Code “SOMETIMES” if only donations above a certain value has been given or if there are other limitations to when a donor’s identity must be revealed and note details in an external comment. Also, code “SOMETIMES” is such requirements exist for candidates but not for political parties or vice versa and explain further in the comment box.

Code “NO” if it is explicitly stated that political parties do not have to reveal the identity of donors, or if there are no provisions on this issue at all.

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about the identity of donors, code “ND”.

 

60

Must reports from political parties and candidates include itemized income?

YES

 

SOMETIMES

 

NO

 

NA

 

ND

If you have coded “NO” on all the questions “Do political parties have to report regularly on their finances?”, “Do political parties have to report on their finances in relation to election campaigns” and “Do candidates have to report on their campaigns finances?” code “NA”. 

Code “YES” if regulations state that political parties in their financial reports must specify information about each item of income, or that they must submit detailed information about their income. 

Code “SOMETIMES” if reports from only political parties OR candidates must include itemised income, or if only some income must be itemised. Give details in an external comment.

If it is not stated that parties must report their income, or if it is only stated that they should report on their income, with no mention about detailed or itemized reporting or identifying donors, code “NO”.

If you cannot find information, code “ND”.

 

61

Must reports from political parties and candidates include information on itemized spending?

YES

 

SOMETIMES

 

NO

 

NA

 

ND 

If you have coded “NO” on all of Q50 and Q51 and Q52, code “NA”.

Code “YES” if regulations state that political parties in their financial reports must specify information about each item of spending, or that they must submit detailed information about their spending. 

Code “SOMETIMES” if reports from only political parties OR candidates must include itemised spending, or if only some spending must be itemised. Give details in an external comment.

If it is not stated that parties must report their spending, or if it is only stated that they should report on their spending, with no mention about detailed or itemized reporting, code “NO”.

If you cannot find information, code “ND”.

 

62

What institution(s) receives financial reports from political parties and/or candidates?

EMB

 

MINISTRY

 

SPECIAL INST

 

COURT

 

AUDITING

AGENCY

 

PARLIAMENTARY

UNIT

 

OTHER 

 

NA

 

ND 

 

(multiple answers allowed)

If you have coded “NO” on all of Q50 and Q51 and Q52, code “NA” on this question. If you code “ND” on all those questions, code “ND”.

Note which type of institution(s) that has a mandate to receive financial statements from political parties and or candidates, either regularly or in relation to elections. 

If it is the electoral commission or similar institution, code “EMB”.

 If it is a Ministry or a person or institution within a Ministry, code “MINISTRY”. 

If it an institution with the specific purpose to oversee political parties or political party/campaign finance, code “SPECAL INST.”

If is a court or a person or institution within a court, code “COURT”.

If it is institution such as a national auditing bureau, code “AUDITING AGENCY”

If it is parliament or an institution within parliament, code “PARLIAMENT” If it is some other form of institution, code “OTHER”. 

If more than one institution is involved, code all that apply.

If you cannot find information, code “ND”.

If neither political parties nor candidates need to submit any financial reports, code “NA”

63

Is it specified that a particular institution(s) is responsible for examining financial reports and/or investigating violations?  

EMB

 

MINISTRY

 

SPECIAL INST

 

COURT

 

AUDITING

AGENCY

 

PARLIAMENT

ARY UNIT

 

OTHER 

 

NO

 

ND 

 

(multiple answers allowed)

Note which type of institution(s) the law specifies has a mandate or obligation to review financial statements from political parties and or candidates, either regularly or in relation to elections. This can include provisions that the institution should “verify” or “control the accuracy” of the reports, or that this body should order external audits of received reports. It is likely that the answer to this question will be the same as for Q62, but only if it is clearly specified that this institution should not only receive but also review the reports. If that is not stated in the law, code “NO”.

Note which type of institution that has a mandate to investigate breaches of financial rules by political parties, candidates or other actors, either regularly or in relation to elections. The answer may or may not be the same as in Q72. Code the responsible institution if legislation states that it should investigate potential violations of political finance regulations, relating to political party or campaign finance. 

If it is the electoral commission or similar institution, code “EMB”.

 If it is a Ministry or a person or institution within a Ministry, code “MINISTRY”. 

If it an institution with the specific purpose to oversee political parties or political party/campaign finance, code “SPECAL INST.”

If is a court or a person or institution within a court, code “COURT”.

If it is institution such as a national auditing bureau, code “AUDITING AGENCY”

If it is parliament or an institution within parliament, code “PARLIAMENT” If it is some other form of institution, code “OTHER”. 

If the law does not specify that any institution (including the one in charge of receiving the reports) should review them, code “NOT SPECIFIED”. 

If more than one institution is involved, code all that apply. Provide details in an external comment (for example if one type of institution examines reports and another investigates breaches) and give the name of all institutions.

If you cannot find information, code “ND”.

64

If a particular institution(s) is responsible for examining financial reports and/or investigating breaches of political finance regulations, what powers is it/they granted?

REFER FOR

INVESTIGATION

 

CARRY OUT

INVESTIGATIONS

 

REQUST

ADDITIONAL

INFORMATION FROM

POTENTIAL

VIOLATOR

 

REQUEST

ADDITIONAL

INFORMATION

FROM

OTHERS

 

IMPOSE

SANCTIONS

 

ND

 

(multiple answers allowed)

Code for the powers that the institution(s) identified in the preceding question has in examining financial reports and/or investigating breaches of political finance regulations.

If the institution(s) has the right/obligation to refer cases of suspected violations to another institution (such as the police or an anti-corruption institution), code “REFER FOR INVESTIGATION”.

If the institution(s) has the right/obligation to investigate suspected violations, code “CARRY OUT INVESTIGATIONS”.

If the institution(s) has the right/obligation to request information from potential violators in cases of suspected violations, code “REQUST ADDITIONAL INFORMATION FROM POTENTIAL VIOLATOR”.

If the institution(s) has the right/obligation to request information also from others than potential violators in cases of suspected violations, code “REQUST ADDITIONAL INFORMATION FROM OTHERS”. 

If the institution(s) has the right/obligation to impose sanctions in cases of violations, code “IMPOSE SANCTIONS”.

Code for ALL the powers that the institution(s) has – multiple answers is acceptable.

If you cannot find information, code “ND”.

65

Is it specified that a particular institution(s) is responsible for overseeing compliance with existing rules against abuse of state resources?

YES, free text

 

NO

 

NA

 

ND 

Note which institution(s) the law specifies has a mandate or obligation to oversee compliance with existing rules against abuse of state resources. This may or may not be the same institution as is noted in the coding for Q62, Q63 and Q72. If rules against abuse of state resources are included among other rules of campaign or political party finance, and one institution has the explicit mandate to oversee compliance with all these provisions, code for this institution and its type.

If the law does not specify that any institution (including the one in charge of receiving the reports) should review them, code “NO”. 

If more than one institution is involved, provide information about all that apply. Provide details in an external comment (for example if one type of institution oversees the use of the state budget and another monitors the use of state media in relation to elections) and give the name of all institutions.

If you cannot find information, code “ND”.

 

66

If a particular institution is responsible for overseeing compliance with existing rules against abuse of state resources, what powers is it granted?

REFER FOR

INVESTIGATION

 

CARRY OUT

INVESTIGATIONS

 

REQUST

ADDITIONAL

INFORMATION

FROM

POTENTIAL

VIOLATOR

 

REQUEST

ADDITIONAL

INFORMATION FROM

OTHERS

 

IMPOSE

SANCTIONS

 

ND

 

(multiple answers allowed)

Code for the powers that the institution(s) identified in Q65 have in the oversight compliance with rules relating to abuse of state resources. The power of this institution(s) in overseeing compliance with other types of regulations is not relevant here, though if the institution(s) has the same powers for overseeing compliance with political finance regulations INCLUDING rules against abuse of state resources, code for these.

If the institution(s) has the right/obligation to refer cases of suspected abuse of state resources to another institution (such as the police or an anti-corruption institution), code “REFER FOR INVESTIGATION”.

If the institution(s) has the right/obligation to investigate suspected abuse of state resources, code “CARRY OUT INVESTIGATIONS”.

If the institution(s) has the right/obligation to request information from potential violators in cases of suspected abuse of state resources, code “REQUST ADDITIONAL INFORMATION FROM POTENTIAL VIOLATOR”.

If the institution(s) has the right/obligation to request information also from others than potential violators in cases of suspected abuse of state resources, code “REQUST ADDITIONAL INFORMATION FROM OTHERS”. 

If the institution(s) has the right/obligation to impose sanctions in cases of abuse of state resources, code “IMPOSE SANCTIONS”.

Code for ALL the powers that the institution(s) has – multiple answers is acceptable.

If you cannot find information, code “ND”.

67

Are there provisions for conflict of interests for candidates and/or elected officials?

YES

 

NO

 

ND

A conflict of interest has been defined as ‘A conflict between the public duty and private interests of public officials, in which the public officials have private-capacity interests which could improperly influence the performance of their official duties and responsibilities’, see http://www.osce.org/secretariat/232761 page 74.

If there are provisions that individuals have to resign from public employment before being nominated as candidates or being declared elected after an election, code “YES”.

Also, code “YES” if it is regulated that elected officials must refrain from acting in certain matters in case they (or people close to them have a connection to the issue at hand). 

Rules that candidates and/or elected officials have to submit reports regarding their financial interests is not relevant for this question, as those issues are covered by other questions.

If no such provisions exist, code “NO”.

If you cannot find information, code “ND”.

 

68

Are elected officials required to submit reports regarding their finances?

YES

 

NO

 

ND

Reporting of this kind is often referred to as “asset declaration”, but may go under different names, and may require that information other than assets.

If there is a requirement for elected officials at any level (for example the president, MPs or member of local government governing bodies) to submit financial reports of any kind to an official institution, either upon being elected and/or regularly. If so, code “YES”, and give details in an external comment (such as that the regulation only relates to some elected officials, the frequency reporting is required and/or the information that needs to be reported). Add details in external comments, for example the type of officials that the reporting requirement relates to, or the type of information that has to be included.

Regulations of this kind may be contained in the Constitution, or in legislation on elected institutions.

If you have not found any information and you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.

 

69

Is it specified that a particular institution(s) is responsible reviewing financial reports by elected officials?

EMB

 

MINISTRY

 

SPECIAL INST

 

COURT

 

AUDITING

AGENCY

 

PARLIAMENTARY

UNIT

 

OTHER 

 

NA

 

ND 

 

(multiple answers allowed)

If you have coded “NO” to “Are elected officials required to submit reports regarding their finances?”, code “NA”.

Note which type of institution(s) that has a mandate to review financial reports from elected officials. 

If it is the electoral commission or similar institution, code “EMB”.

 If it is a Ministry or a person or institution within a Ministry, code “MINISTRY”. 

If it an institution with the specific purpose to oversee political parties or political party/campaign finance, code “SPECAL INST.”

If is a court or a person or institution within a court, code “COURT”.

If it is institution such as a national auditing bureau, code “AUDITING AGENCY”

If it is parliament or an institution within parliament, code “PARLIAMENTARY UNIT” If it is some other form of institution, code “OTHER”. 

If more than one institution is involved, code all that apply.

If more than one type of institution has such a mandate, give multiple answers. 

Give details in an external comment, including the name of the institution(s) with such a mandate.

If you cannot find information, code “ND”.

70

Are reporting entities required to enforce enhanced due diligence policies and procedures regarding politically exposed people?

YES

 

SOMETIMES

 

NO

 

ND

By “enhanced due diligence” is here meant requirements that reporting entities (often banks and financial use “policies, procedures, and processes for obtaining customer information and assess the value of this information in detecting, monitoring, and reporting suspicious activity” that goes beyond regular provisions for due diligence (sometimes referred to a “customer due diligence”). Due diligence is required for high risk customers (which the politically exposed people constitutes).

“Politically exposed persons” has been defined as “individuals who have been entrusted with prominent public functions, typically heads of State, senior politicians, prominent judicial officials and their close family members and associates”, see further http://www.osce.org/secretariat/232761  page 229.

Some       further     information             is              available at https://www.ffiec.gov/bsa_aml_infobase/pages_manual/olm_013.htm , which also gives examples of activities that relate to enhanced due diligence.

These regulations should typically be found in anti-money laundering legislation, banking regulations, anti-corruption strategies, the criminal or criminal procedural code, or similar norms. 

If there are provisions that banks and financial institutions use enhanced due diligence (using this term or similar terminology) in relation to political party officials, candidates and elected officials, code “YES”. Give additional information in an external comment, for example the type of additional measures that banks and financial institutions are required to use.

If there are provisions requiring enhanced due diligence in certain cases, code “SOMETIMES and given details in an external comment.

If no such provisions exist, code “NO”.

If you cannot find information, code “ND”.

 

71

Is it specified that a particular institution(s) is responsible for investigate money laundering that relates to political parties, candidates and elected officials? 

FINANCIAL

INTELLIGENCE

UNIT 

 

ANTI-

CORRUPTION

BODY

 

TAX

AUTHORITY

 

BANKING/

FINANCIAL

OMBUDSPERSON

 

POLICE UNIT

 

OTHER

 

NO

 

ND

By “money laundering” is here meant “the process by which criminals disguise the original ownership and control of the proceeds of criminal conduct by making such proceeds appear to have derived from a legitimate source” (see further https://www.int-comp.org/careers/acareer-in-aml/what-is-money-laundering/ ).

Code all the below that apply and give details about the mandate of each in an external comment.

If there are provisions that an entity with a mandate to counteract corruption is responsible for investigating money laundering (using this term or similar terminology) that relates to political parties, candidates and elected officials, code “ANTI-CORRUPTION BODY” and give details in an external comment. 

If there are provisions that an entity dealing with tax issues is responsible for investigating money laundering (using this term or similar terminology) that relates to political parties, candidates and elected officials, code “TAX AUTHORITY” and give details in an external comment. 

If there are provisions that an ombudsperson regarding banking of financial institutions is responsible for investigating money laundering (using this term or similar terminology) that relates to political parties, candidates and elected officials, code “BANKING/ FINANCIAL OMBUDSPERSON” and give details in an external comment. 

If there are provisions that an entity within the police force is responsible for investigating money laundering (using this term or similar terminology) that relates to political parties, candidates and elected officials, code “POLICE UNIT” and give details in an external comment. 

If there are provisions that a financial intelligence unit is responsible for investigating money laundering (using this term or similar terminology) that relates to political parties, candidates and elected officials, code “FINANCIAL INTELLIGENCE UNIT” and give details in an external comment. 

If any other type of institution has this mandate, code “OTHER”.

Code the alternative(s) above both if a particular institution has the responsibility for investigating money laundering specifically relating to political parties, candidates and elected officials, and if an institution has a responsibility for investigating money laundering relating to all actors, including political parties, candidates and elected officials (note which one that applies in an external comment. 

If no such provisions exist, code “NO”.

If you cannot find information, code “ND”.

 

72

What other institutions have a formal role in political finance oversight?

EMB

MINISTRY

 

SPECIAL INST

COURT

 

AUDITING

AGENCY

 

PARLIAMENTARY UNIT

 

OTHER 

 

NA

 

ND 

 

(multiple answers allowed)

Note any other institutions apart from those noted in the questions "What institution(s) receives financial reports from political parties and/or candidates?" and "Is it specified that a particular institution(s) is responsible for examining financial reports and/or investigating breaches of political finance regulations?" that have a formal role in relation to political parties or election finance. This could for example be a body that receives (but does not investigate) complaints or which hears appeals in related cases. More than one answer is allowed and give details in an external comment.

 

If the electoral commission or similar institution, code “EMB”.

 

If a Ministry or a person or institution within a Ministry, code “MINISTRY”. 

 

If it an institution with the specific purpose to oversee political parties or political party/campaign finance, code “SPECAL INST.”

 

If is a court or a person or institution within a court, code “COURT”.

 

If it is institution such as a national auditing bureau, code “AUDITING AGENCY”

 

If it is parliament or an institution within parliament, code “PARLIAMENTARY UNIT”

 

If it is some other form of institution, code “OTHER”. 

 

If more than one institution is involved, such as if one institution deals with political party breaches and one with election infractions, code all that apply.

 If you cannot find information, code “ND”.

 

73

What sanctions are provided for political finance infractions?

FINES 

 

PRISON

 

FORFEITURE 

 

SUSPENSION

OF PUBLIC

FUNDING

 

LOSS OF

PUBLIC

FUNDING

 

SUSPENSION

OF POLITICAL

PARTY

 

DEREGISTRATION

OF PARTY

 

LOSS OF

NOMINATION

OF

CANDIDATE

 

OTHER

 

NONE

 

NA

 

ND 

 

(multiple answers allowed)

Note all types of sanctions that may be applied in case of offences related to political party or campaign finance. Multiple alternatives can be given.

If a political party, candidate or other actor (such as party officials, donors or party/candidate auditors) may be given a fine or other financial penalty, code “FINE”.

If a candidate or other actor (such as party officials, donors or party/candidate auditors) may be given a prison sentence, code “PRISON”.

If a political party or candidate has to return amounts received against the rules or forward the amount (or a multiple of the amount) to someone else, such as the EMB, code “FORFEITURE”).

If there are provisions that direct public funding may be withheld operations until the party has fulfilled certain actions relating to an offence relating to political finance, code “SUSPENSION OF PUBLIC FUNDING”

If there are offences or infractions relating to political party finance which can lead to direct public funding being reduced, stopped or demanded in return, code “LOSS OF PUBLIC FUNDING”

If a political party may be required to cease all or some of its operations until the party has fulfilled certain actions relating to an offence relating to political finance, code “SUSPENSION OF PARTY”.

If a political party may be deregistered for offences relating to political finance, code “DEREGISTRATION OF PARTY”.

If a candidate may lose her/his nomination to stand for election for offences relating to political finance, code “LOSS OF NOMINATION OF CANDIDATE”.

If there are other types of sanctions apart from those noted above, code “OTHER”. If so, you must give details in an external comment.

If there are no provisions for sanctions regarding breaches of political finance regulations, code “NONE”.

If there are no regulations whatsoever relating to political finance (and so there cannot be any sanctions), code “NA”.

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.

74

IN PRACTICE: How many sanctions have been issued in relation to political finance regulations in the last 24 months?

Number  of

sanctions

 

ND

Note that the IN-PRACTICE questions should only be answered for a very limited set of countries. This would have been agreed upon beforehand and would be made clear in your contract. 

Code the number of sanctions that have been issued in relation to political finance regulations during the 24 months preceding the date when you do the coding. By “political finance regulations” are meant rules such as those included in this database.

Sanctions may be imposed by courts, by political finance oversight agencies or by other institutions. If a case is appealed to a higher institution and a sanction imposed earlier is confirmed, this should not be counted as an additional sanction. 

If you cannot find information, code “ND”.