Coding Instructions

To assist users of the database who want to know more about how we arrived at the different answers, view the coding instructions that were employed by the project researchers.

Note that in the below text NA stands for "not applicable" and ND stands for "no data".

If you have any questions, please contact us by email at politicalfinancedb@idea.int .

     

Question 

Coding options 

Coding instructions 

1. Is there a ban on donations from foreign interests to political parties?  

 

Yes 

Code “Yes” in following cases: 

  • If political parties are not allowed to receive donations from one or more of the following: foreign citizens, foreign companies, foreign governments or foreign organisations.  

  • If donations from some but not all of the above are banned. Give details in an external comment.  

  • If it is stated that such entities are banned from giving support, contributions or donations to political parties.  

  • If legislation includes an exhaustive list of allowed sources of income for political parties, and this only includes national sources (such as “citizens” or “natural and judicial persons from X-land”). By an “exhaustive list” is meant where it is stated something like “political parties are only allowed to receive income from the following sources” or vague) “parties may receive funding from the following sources”. If it says something like “allowed sources for political parties include...” it is not exhaustive.  

Note:  Regulation on this matter may be found in a political party law. In some countries, this issue is regulated in the Constitution, normally in a section specifically on political parties. Note that rules regarding whether or not citizens of the country in question living abroad can donate are not relevant for this question. 

No 

 

Code “No” if you find information about allowed or banned sources for political parties and there is no mention about foreign sources.  

Not applicable 

Code “Not applicable” if only candidates/individuals are allowed to participate in politics (i.e. there is no political party).  

No data 

Code “No data” if you cannot find any information.  

2. Is there a ban on donations from foreign interests to candidates? 

 

Yes 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Code “Yes” in following cases: 

  • If candidates are not allowed to receive donations from one or more of the following: foreign citizens, foreign companies, foreign governments or foreign organisations.  

  • If donations from some but not all of the above are banned, and give details in an external comment.  

  • If such entities are banned from giving support, contributions or donations to candidates. 

  • If legislation includes an exhaustive list of allowed sources of income for candidates, and this only includes national sources (such as “citizens” or “natural and judicial persons from X-land”). By an “exhaustive list” is meant where it is stated something like “candidates are only allowed to receive income from the following sources” “candidates may receive funding from the following sources”. If it says something like “allowed sources for candidates include...” it is not exhaustive.  

Note: Regulation on this matter for candidates will almost always be found in the electoral law. In some countries, this issue is regulated in the Constitution, normally in a section specifically on elections. Note that rules regarding whether or not citizens of the country in question living abroad can donate are not relevant for this question. 

No 

Code “No” if you find information about allowed or banned sources for candidates and there is no mention about foreign sources. 

Not applicable 

Code “Not applicable” if all donations must be received by political parties and candidates are not allowed to directly receive contributions from donors.    

No data 

Code “No data” if you cannot find any information. 

3. Is there a ban on corporate donations to political parties?  

 

Yes 

 

Code “Yes” in following cases: 

  • If you find information that political parties are not allowed to receive donations from corporations, companies and/or business enterprises.  

  • If it is stated that such entities are banned from giving support, contributions or donations to political parties. This includes bans on either or both of monetary and in-kind donations.  

  • If legislation includes an exhaustive list of allowed sources of income for political parties, and this does not include the above or “judicial persons”. By an “exhaustive list” is meant where it is stated something like “political parties are only allowed to receive income from the following sources” or “parties may receive funding from the following sources”. If it says something like “allowed sources for political parties include...” it is not exhaustive.  

Note that a regulation of this issue for political parties may be found in a political party law. In some countries, this issue is regulated in the Constitution, normally in a section specifically on political parties.  

No 

Code “No” in following cases: 

  • If you find information about allowed or banned sources for political parties and there is no mention about the sources mentioned above.  

  • If the regulations only ban donations from state-owned or public corporations etc. 

Not applicable 

Code “Not applicable” if only candidates/individuals are allowed to participate in politics (i.e. there is no political party. 

No data 

Code “No data” if you cannot find any information. 

4. Is there a ban on corporate donations to candidates?  

 

Yes 

 

Code “Yes” in following cases: 

  • If you find information that candidates are not allowed to receive donations from corporations, companies and/or business enterprises.  

  • If it is stated that such entities are banned from giving support, contributions or donations to candidates. This includes bans on either or both of monetary and in-kind donations.  

  • If legislation includes an exhaustive list of allowed sources of income for candidates, and this does not include the above or “judicial persons”. By an “exhaustive list” is meant where it is stated something like “candidates are only allowed to receive income from the following sources” or “candidates may receive funding from the following sources”. If it says something like “allowed sources for candidates include...” it is not exhaustive.  

Note that a regulation of this issue for candidates (if it is regulated) will almost always be found in the electoral law. In some countries, this issue is regulated in the Constitution, normally in a section specifically on elections.  

Note that if you find information that corporate funding is banned from being used in election campaigns, but it is not explicitly stated or clear from the context that it relates specifically to political parties or candidates, code “Yes” for both this and the preceding question. 

No 

Code “No” in the following cases: 

  • If you find information about allowed or banned sources for candidates and there is no mention about the sources mentioned above.  

  • If the regulations only ban donations from state-owned or public corporations etc. 

Not applicable 

Code “Not applicable” if all donations must be received by political parties and candidates are not entitled to directly receive contributions from donors.    

No data 

Code “No data” if you cannot find any information. 

5. Is there a ban on donations from Trade Unions to political parties?  

 

Yes 

 

Code “Yes” in the following cases: 

  • If you find information that political parties are not allowed to receive donations from trade unions, workers’ organisations etc. 

  • If it is stated that such entities are banned from giving support, contributions or donations to political parties.  

  • If legislation includes an exhaustive list of allowed sources of income for political parties, and this does not include any of the above. By an “exhaustive list” is meant where it is stated something like “political parties are only allowed to receive income from the following sources” or vague) “parties may receive funding from the following sources”. If it says something like “allowed sources for political parties include...” it is not exhaustive.  

Note that if you find information that trade union funding is banned from being used in election campaigns, but it is not explicitly stated or clear from the context that it relates specifically to political parties or candidates, code “Yes” for both this and the following question. 

No 

Code “No” if you find information about allowed or banned sources for political parties and there is no mention about the sources mentioned above.  

Not applicable 

 

Code “Not applicable” if only candidates/individuals are allowed to participate in politics (i.e. there is no political party). 

No data 

 

Code “No data” if you have not found any information and you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue. 

6. Is there a ban on donations from Trade Unions to candidates? 

 

Yes 

 

Code “Yes” in the following cases: 

  • If you find information that candidates are not allowed to receive donations from trade unions, workers’ organisations etc.  

  • If it is stated that such entities are banned from giving support, contributions or donations to candidates.  

  • If legislation includes an exhaustive list of allowed sources of income for candidates, and this does not include any of the above. By an “exhaustive list” is meant where it is stated something like “candidates are only allowed to receive income from the following sources” or (more vague) “candidates may receive funding from the following sources”. If it says something like “allowed sources for candidates include...” it is not exhaustive. 

Note that if you find information that from trade unions funding is banned from being used in election campaigns, but it is not explicitly stated or clear from the context that it relates specifically to political parties or candidates, code “Yes” for both this and the preceding question. 

No 

Code “No” if you find information about allowed or banned sources for candidates and there is no mention about the sources mentioned above. 

Not applicable 

Code “Not applicable” if all donations must be received by political parties and candidates are not entitled to directly receive contributions from donors.    

No data 

Code “No data” if you have not found any information and you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue. 

7. Is there a ban on anonymous donations to political parties?  

 

Yes 

 

Code “Yes” in the following cases: 

  • If you find information that political parties are not allowed to receive donations from anonymous or unnamed sources. 

  • If it is stated that support, contributions or donations to political parties cannot be given anonymously.  

  • If it is regulated that political parties must be able to provide names or to identify the source of all donations (a de facto ban on anonymous donations). 

Yes, above certain threshold 

 

Code “Yes, above certain threshold” if it is stated that political parties can receive anonymous donations, but only if they do not exceed a certain threshold. Give information regarding the threshold in an external comment. 

No 

 

Code “No” if you find information about sources of funding and there is no mention of anonymous sources, if anonymous donations are explicitly allowed or if it is clear that there are no limitations on sources of funds at all. 

Not applicable 

 

Code “Not applicable” in following cases: 

  • If only candidates/individuals are allowed to participate in politics (such as the case of Tuvalu). 

  • If parties are fully funded by state resources  

No data 

 

Code “No data” if you have not found any information and you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue. 

8. Is there a ban on anonymous donations to candidates? 

 

Yes 

Code “Yes” in the following cases: 

  • If you find information that candidates are not allowed to receive donations from anonymous or unnamed sources.  

  • If it is stated that support, contributions or donations to candidates cannot be given anonymously.  

  • If it is regulated that candidates must be able to provide names or to identify the source of all donations (a de facto ban on anonymous donations). 

Yes, above certain threshold 

 

Code “Yes, above certain threshold” if it is stated that candidates can receive anonymous donations, but only if they do not exceed a certain threshold. Give information regarding the threshold in an external comment.  

No 

Code “No” if you find information about sources of funding and there is no mention of anonymous sources, if anonymous donations are explicitly allowed or if it is clear that there are no limitations on sources of funds at all. 

Not applicable 

Code “Not applicable” in following cases: 

  • If all donations must be received by political parties and candidates are not entitled to directly receive contributions from donors  

  • If election campaigns are fully funded by state resources 

No data 

Code “No data” if you cannot find any information. 

9. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with government contracts to political parties?  

 

Yes 

 

Code “Yes” in following cases: 

  • If you find information that political parties are not allowed to receive donations from corporations, companies or business enterprises that have public/government contracts.  

  • If it is stated that such entities are banned from giving support, contributions or donations to political parties.  

  • If legislation includes an exhaustive list of allowed sources of income for political parties, and this does not include the above. By an “exhaustive list” is meant where it is stated something like “political parties are only allowed to receive income from the following sources” or “parties may receive funding from the following sources”. If it says something like “allowed sources for political parties include...” it is not exhaustive.  

Note that this question does not relate to donations from direct government sources such as ministries, government agencies or public companies.  

No 

Code “No” if you find information about allowed or banned sources for political parties and there is no mention about the sources mentioned above. 

Not applicable 

 

Code “Not applicable” if only candidates/individuals are allowed to participate in politics (such as the case of Tuvalu). 

No data 

Code “No data” if you have not found any information and you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue. 

10. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with government contracts to candidates?  

 

Yes 

 

Code “Yes” in following cases: 

  • if you find information that candidates are not allowed to receive donations from corporations, companies or business enterprises that have public/government contracts.  

  • If it is stated that such entities are banned from giving support, contributions or donations to candidates.  

  • If legislation includes an exhaustive list of allowed sources of income for candidates, and this does not include the above. By an “exhaustive list” is meant where it is stated something like “candidates are only allowed to receive income from the following sources” or (more vague) “candidates may receive funding from the following sources”. If it says something like “allowed sources for candidates include...” it is not exhaustive.  

Note that this question does not relate to donations from direct government sources such as ministries, government agencies or public companies.  

No 

 

Code “No” if you find information about allowed or banned sources for candidates and there is no mention about the sources mentioned above. 

Not applicable 

 

Code “Not applicable” if all donations must be received by political parties and candidates are not entitled to directly receive contributions from donors

No data 

 

Code “No data” if you have not found any information and you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue. 

11. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with partial government ownership to political parties?  

 

Yes 

 

Code “Yes” in following cases: 

  • If you find information that political parties are not allowed to receive donations from corporations, companies or business enterprises that are partly owned or controlled by the government.  

  • If it is stated that such entities are banned from giving support, contributions or donations to political parties.  

  • If legislation includes an exhaustive list of allowed sources of income for political parties, and this does not include the above. By an “exhaustive list” is meant where it is stated something like “political parties are only allowed to receive income from the following sources” or (more vague) “parties may receive funding from the following sources”. If it says something like “allowed sources for political parties include...” it is not exhaustive.  

Note that this question does not relate to donations from direct government sources such as ministries, government agencies or public companies.  

No 

Code “No” in following cases 

  • If you find information about allowed or banned sources for political parties and there is no mention about the sources mentioned above 

  • If the regulations only ban donations from state-owned or public corporations etc. 

Not applicable 

Code “Not applicable” if only candidates/individuals are allowed to participate in politics (such as the case of Tuvalu). 

No data 

Code “No data” if you have not found any information and you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue. 

12. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with partial government ownership to candidates?  

 

Yes 

 

Code “Yes” in following cases: 

  • If you find information that candidates are not allowed to receive donations from corporations, companies or business enterprises that are partly owned or controlled by the government.  

  • If it is stated that such entities are banned from giving support, contributions or donations to candidates.  

  • If legislation includes an exhaustive list of allowed sources of income for candidates, and this does not include the above. By an “exhaustive list” is meant where it is stated something like “candidates are only allowed to receive income from the following sources” or (more vague) “candidates may receive funding from the following sources”. If it says something like “allowed sources for candidates include...” it is not exhaustive.  

Note that this question does not relate to donations from direct government sources such as ministries, government agencies or public companies (companies with full government ownership). 

No 

Code “No” in following cases:  

  • If you find information about allowed or banned sources for candidates and there is no mention about the sources mentioned above. Also code “No” if the regulations only ban donations from state-owned or public corporations et

Not applicable 

Code “Not applicable” if all donations must be received by political parties and candidates are not entitled to directly receive contributions from

No data 

Code “No data” if you have not found any information and you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “No data”. 

13. Is there a ban on the use of state resources in favour or against a political party or candidate?  

Yes 

 

Code “Yes” if there are any regulations against the use of state resources to favour a particular political party or candidate, whether or not it is in relation to elections or who is using these resources. This could for example include; 

  • A general ban on using state resources in favour of a political party or candidate 

  • A ban on government vehicles being used in election campaigns 

  • A ban on campaigning taking place at government facilities (unless same access given to all contestants) 

  • A ban on civil servants or state employees to campaign while on duty/during office hours 

  • A ban on public media giving biased coverage in relation to political parties or elections, or a requirement for public media to be neutral in its reporting (regulations of private media are not relevant in this regard). 

(Give details in an external comment). 

Note that this type of regulation may not be in the same place as information about political party or campaign finance. There may for example be a separate section on this issue, or information may be included among a list of election offences (such a list is often found towards the end of electoral laws). 

The provision of regulated direct or indirect public funding to all eligible political party is not relevant for this question. 

No 

Code “No” if you have access to regulations about elections (and if possible political party activities) and there is no mention of the use of state resources. 

No data 

Code “No data” if you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about the use of state resources. 

14. Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party during a non-election specific period? 

Yes, for natural persons 

 

Code “Yes for natural persons” if there are any regulations limiting the amounts that an individual can donate/contribute to a political party for a certain time period, not specifically in relation to elections. 

Give information about the contribution limit in an external comment (in the currency used in the regulation, noting which one that is) and add what the time period the limit is for, and any other information. 

Yes, for legal persons 

 

Code “Yes, for legal persons “if there are any regulations limiting the amounts that a legal entity (organisations, companies etc.) can donate/contribute to a political party for a certain time period, not specifically in relation to elections. 

Yes, for both natural and legal persons 

 

Code “Yes, for both natural and legal persons” if there are regulations limiting the amounts that both and individual and a legal entity (organisations, companies etc.) can donate/contribute to a political party for a certain time period, not specifically in relation to elections.  

No 

Code “No” if you find information about political party and campaign finance but there is no information of such limits, or if there seem to be no regulations of political party finance at all. 

Not applicable 

 

Code “Not applicable” if only candidates/individuals are allowed to participate in politics (such as the case of Tuvalu). 

No data 

 

Code “No data” if you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about such limits. 

15. If there is a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party during a non-election specific period, what is the limit? 

 

Other (free text, limit in local currency) 

 

Give information about the contribution limit to political parties (in the currency used in the regulation, noting which one that is) and add information such as if the limit is per constituency, per candidate or per voter. If the limit is expressed as a calculation (for example 100 times the minimum wage), code that.  

Not applicable 

 

Code “Not applicable” in following cases: 

  • If you code “No” on question 14. 

  • If you code “Not applicable” on question 14. 

No data 

 

Code “No data” if you code “No data” on question 14. 

16. Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party during an election?  

 

Yes, for natural persons 

 

Code “Yes, for natural persons” if there are any regulations specific for election campaigns, limiting the amounts that an individual can donate/contribute to a political party in relation to elections. 

Give information about the contribution limit in an external comment (in the currency used in the regulation, noting which one that is) and add what the time period the limit is for, and any other information. 

Yes, for legal persons 

 

Code “Yes, for legal persons “if there are any regulations specific for election campaigns, limiting the amounts that a legal entity (organisations, companies etc.) can donate/contribute to a political party in relation to elections. 

Yes, for both natural and legal persons 

 

Code “Yes, for both natural and legal persons” if there are regulations specific for election campaigns, limiting the amounts that both and individual and a legal entity (organisations, companies etc.) can donate/contribute to a political party in relation to elections. 

No 

 

Code “No” if you find information about political party and campaign finance but there is no information of limits specific for election campaigns, or if there seem to be no regulations of political party finance at all. 

No, but limits for regular periods apply to campaign periods 

Code “No, but limits for regular periods apply to campaign periods” if you find no information regarding limits specific for election campaigns, but you find information that contribution limits for regular periods also apply to campaign periods. 

Not applicable 

 

Code “Not applicable” in following cases: 

  • If only candidates/individuals are allowed to participate in politics (i.e. there is no political party). 

  • If all donations in relation to elections are banned. 

No data 

 

Code “No data” if you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about such limits. 

17. If there is a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party during an election, what is the limit? 

Other (free text, limit in local currency) 

 

Give information about the contribution limit to political parties (in the currency used in the regulation, noting which one that is) and add information such as if the limit is per constituency, per candidate or per voter. If the limit is expressed as a calculation (for example 100 times the minimum wage), code that. 

If you find no information about the limit (such as if it is stated that the limit is to be set by an institution), code “No data” and give details in an external comment. 

Not applicable 

 

Code “Not applicable” in following cases: 

  • If you code “No” on question 16. 

  • If you code “Not applicable” on question 16. 

No data 

Code “No data” if you code “No data” on question 16. 

18. Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a candidate?  

 

Yes, for natural persons 

 

Code “Yes, for natural persons” if there are any regulations limiting the amounts that an individual can donate/contribute to a candidate in relation to elections. 

Give information about the contribution limit to candidates in an external comment (in the currency used in the regulation, noting which one that is) and add information such as if the limit is per constituency, or per voter. If the limit is expressed as a calculation (for example 100 times the minimum wage), make a note of that. 

Yes, for legal persons 

 

Code “Yes, for legal persons” if there are any regulations limiting the amounts that a legal entity (organisations, companies etc.) can donate/contribute to a candidate in relation to elections. 

Yes, for both natural and legal persons 

 

Code “Yes, for both natural and legal persons” if there are regulations limiting the amounts that both and individual and a legal entity (organisations, companies etc.) can donate/contribute to a political party in relation to elections. 

No 

 

Code “No” if you find information about campaign finance but there is no information of such limits, or if there seem to be no regulations of candidate finance at all. 

Not applicable 

 

Code “Not applicable” in following cases: 

  • If all donations must be received by political parties and candidates are not entitled to directly receive contributions from donors.    

  • If election campaigns are fully funded by state resources  

No data 

 

Code “No data” if you judge that there may likely be regulations but you have not been able to access information about such limits. 

19. If there is a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a candidate, what is the limit?  

 

Other (free text, limit in local currency) 

 

Give information about the contribution limit to candidates (in the currency used in the regulation, noting which one that is) and add information such as if the limit is per constituency, per candidate or per voter. If the limit is expressed as a calculation (for example 100 times the minimum wage), code that. 

Not applicable 

 

Code “Not applicable” in following cases: 

  • If you code “No” on question 18. 

  • If you code “Not applicable” on question 18. 

No data 

Code “No data” if, code “No data” on question 18. 

20. Is there a limit on the amount a candidate can contribute to their own campaign?  

 

Yes, donation limit for private persons apply 

Code “Yes, donation limit for private persons apply” if it is mentioned that an existing limit on the amount that can be donated to candidates also applies to the candidates themselves.  

Yes, specific limit for candidates 

Code “Yes, specific limit for candidates” if it is mentioned that there is a specific limit on the amount that a candidate can contribute to her/his own campaign. 

No 

 

Code “No” in following cases: 

  • If you have coded “No” to Q18.  

  • If there is a limit on the amount that can be donated to candidates, but it is not mentioned that this limit applies to the candidates themselves.  

  • If it is regulated that candidates must transfer donations to a specific campaign account, but there is no mention of a limit on the amount that can be transferred. Add information about the regulation in the comments section. 

Not applicable 

Code “Not applicable” in following cases: 

  • If all donations must be received by political parties and candidates are not entitled to directly receive contributions from private donors.    

  • If all private donations are banned/that election campaigns are fully funded by state resources. 

No data 

Code “No data” if you have not found any information and you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue. 

21. Is there a limit on in-kind donations to political parties?  

 

Yes 

Code “Yes” in following cases: 

  • If there is a provision that donations can only be given to political parties in the form of cash or monetary transfers, or that political parties can only receive donations in the form of cash or monetary transfers. 

  • If it is stated that any donations in the form of good and services are prohibited. 

  • If you have answered “Yes” to either Q17 or Q18, and regulations provide that the value of donations in the form of goods or services should be included in the value of this donation limit(s). 

No 

Code “No” in following cases: 

  • If the list of permitted sources of party income include donations in the form of good and services, and there is no limitation on the type of such donations that can be given or of their value. 

  • If there is no mention at all about donations in the form of goods or services in the regulations. 

Not applicable 

 

Code “Not applicable” in following cases: 

  • If only candidates/individuals are allowed to participate in politics (i.e. there is no political party). 

  • If you find that all private donations are banned/that all expenses related to election campaigns are fully funded by state resources such as the case of Uzbekistan. 

No data 

Code “No data” if you cannot find information. 

22. Is there a limit on in-kind donations to candidates?  

 

Yes 

 

 

Code “Yes” in following cases: 

  • If there is a provision that donations can only be given to candidates in the form of cash or monetary transfers, or that candidates can only receive donations in the form of cash or monetary transfers, or if it is stated that any donations in the form of good and services are prohibited. 

  • If you have answered “Yes” to Q20, and regulations provide that the value of donations in the form of goods or services should be included in the value of this donation limit(s). 

 

No 

 

Code “No” in following cases: 

  • If the list of permitted sources of party income include donations in the form of good and services, and there is no limitation on the type of such donations that can be given or of their value. 

  • If there is no mention at all about donations in the form of goods or services in the regulations. 

Not applicable 

 

Code “Not applicable” in following cases: 

  • If all donations must be received by political parties and candidates are not entitled to directly receive contributions from donors  

  • If election campaigns are fully funded by state resources. 

No data 

Code “No data” if you cannot find information. 

23. Is there a ban on political parties engaging in commercial activities? 

 

Yes 

 

Code “Yes” in following cases: 

  • if there is a regulation that political parties are banned from participating or engaging in any commercial or business activities. 

  • If legislation includes an exhaustive list of allowed sources of income for political parties, and this does not include income from business or commercial activities. By an “exhaustive list” is meant where it is stated something like “political parties are only allowed to receive income from the following sources” or (more vague) “political parties may receive funding from the following sources”. If it says something like “allowed sources for political parties include...” it is not exhaustive.  

Sometimes 

 

Code “Sometimes” if it is stated that political parties may engage in certain commercial activities, for example only relating to printing, communication or publishing. 

No 

 

Code “No” if there are provisions that political parties are allowed to engage in commercial or business activities, without any further details or limitations. 

Also, code “No” if there is no mention about the engagement of political parties in commercial or business activities. 

Not applicable 

 

Code “Not applicable” if only candidates/individuals are allowed to participate in politics (i.e. there is no political party). 

No data 

 

Code “No data” if you have not found any information but you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue. 

24. Is there a ban on political parties taking loans in relation to election campaigns?  

 

Yes 

 

 

Code “Yes” in following cases: 

  • If the regulations note that political parties are banned from taking loans. 

  • If legislation includes an exhaustive list of allowed sources of income, and this does not include loans. By an “exhaustive list” is meant where it is stated something like “political parties are only allowed to receive income from the following sources” or (vaguer) “political parties may receive funding from the following sources”. If it says something like “allowed sources for political parties include...” it is not exhaustive.  

Sometimes 

 

Code “Sometimes” if regulations state that loans are permitted but with certain restrictions, for example from what types of institutions that loans may be obtained, or if there is a maximum amount that may be raised as loans. 

No 

 

Code “No” in following cases: 

  • If the regulations state that loans may be obtained by political parties or candidates, and no limitations are provided. 

  • If the issue of loans is not addressed in the regulations regarding income for political parties. 

Not applicable 

Code “Not applicable” if only candidates/individuals are allowed to participate in politics (i.e there is no political party). 

No data 

Code “No data” if you have not found any information but you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue. 

25. Is there a ban on candidates taking loans in relations to election campaigns?  

 

Yes 

Code “Yes” in following cases: 

  • If the regulations note that candidates are banned from taking loans. 

  • If legislation includes an exhaustive list of allowed sources of income, and this does not include loans. By an “exhaustive list” is meant where it is stated something like “candidates are only allowed to receive income from the following sources” or (vaguer) “candidates may receive funding from the following sources”. If it says something like “allowed sources for candidates include...” it is not exhaustive.  

Sometimes 

Code “Sometimes” if regulations state that loans are permitted but with certain restrictions, for example from what types of institutions that loans may be obtained, or if there is a maximum amount that may be raised as loans. 

No 

Code “No” in following cases: 

  • If the regulations state that loans may be obtained by candidates, and no limitations are provided. 

  • If the issue of loans is not addressed in the regulations regarding income for candidates. 

Not applicable 

Code “Not applicable” if only political parties are allowed to take loans while candidates are not permitted to take loans. 

No data 

Code “No data” if you have not found any information but you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue. 

26. Is there a ban on donors to political parties/candidates participating in public tender/procurement processes? 

Yes 

Code “Yes” if there are provisions that individuals or entities that have made donations to political parties or candidates are banned from participating in public tender or public procurement processes. 

Note that information about this issue is normally not included in legislation used to answer many other questions, for example political party, electoral or political finance legislation. It is more likely that regulations on this issue is included in legislation on public procurement, or on administrative processes. 

Sometimes 

Code “Sometimes” if there are provisions that such individuals or entities are banned from such participation in some cases. Give details in an external comment. This can for example be if limitations only apply if they have made donations during a certain time period or above a certain amount, or if they are banned from participating in public tender/procurement processes of a value above a certain amount.  

No 

Code “No” if there are no limitations of this kind. 

No data 

Code ”No data” if you have not found any information and you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue. 

27. Are there provisions requiring donations to go through the banking system?  

 

Yes 

Code “Yes” in following cases: 

  • If there are provisions that all donations to political parties AND candidates must be made via a bank, or that they must be made via bank transfers or cheques, or if donations must not be made in cash,  

  • If rules provide that political parties AND candidates must only receive donations that are made in this way.  

  • If it is noted that such restrictions apply to all monetary or “non-in-kind” donations. 

Sometimes 

 

Code “Sometimes” if there are provisions that some donations must be made in this way. This can for example be the case if only donations to parties but not candidates must be done in this way, or if this only applies to donations above a certain level. Give details in an external comment. 

No 

Code “No” if there are no provisions that any donations must be given or received as described above. 

No data 

Code “No data” if you cannot find information. 

28. Are there provisions for direct public funding to political parties? 

 

Yes, regularly 

Code “Yes, regularly” if it is it regulated that political parties are entitled to provision of direct public funding [money] that is provided regularly (normally annually or more often), not specifically related to election campaigns.  

Yes, in relation to campaigns 

Code “Yes, in relation to campaigns” if it is it regulated that political parties are entitled to provision of direct public funding [money] that is provided specifically related to election campaigns.  

Yes, both regularly and in relation to campaigns 

Code “Yes, both regularly and in relation to campaigns” if both of these types of direct public funding are provided. 

No public funding available 

Code “No public funding available” in following cases: 

  • If a list of permitted sources of income of a political party does not include any mention of public funding and no information about public funding can be found.  

  • If a law mentions that public funding “may” or “could” be provided, but then make an external comment explaining this.  

Not applicable 

Code “Not applicable” if only candidates/individuals are allowed to participate in politics (such as the case of Tuvalu). 

No data 

Code “No data” if you cannot find information.  

29. What are the eligibility criteria for political parties to receive public funding?  

 

(multiple answers allowed) 

 

Representation in elected body 

Give the basis used to establish eligibility for political parties to access direct funding (or “who has the right to receive”). Code all options that apply, provide details in an external comment. 

In case the answer “Both” was given in Q30 and the allocation criteria is different for the two types of direct public funding, please state clearly what the regulations are for campaign support and for regular assistance separately in an external comment. 

Code “Representation in elected body” if the eligibility criteria is that a political party must have representation in an elected body.  

 

Share of votes in previous election 

Code “Share of votes in previous election” if the eligibility is that a party must have won a certain share of votes in the preceding election. Include the percentage that is required. 

Share of votes in next election 

Code “Share of votes in next election” if the eligibility is that a party must win a certain share of votes in the next election. Include the percentage that is required (this is sometimes used when public funding is provided after an election). 

Share of seats in previous election 

 

Code “Share of seats in previous election” if the eligibility is based on a certain number of seats or “representation” that each party holds or won in the preceding election. Include the percentage that is required.  

Share of seats in next election 

Code “Share of seats in next election” if the eligibility is based on a certain number of seats or “representation” that each party wins in the next election. Include the percentage that(this is sometimes used when public funding is provided after an election)

Number of candidates nominated 

Code “Number of candidates nominated” if eligibility is established by the number of candidates presented by the party (in the preceding or forthcoming election). Note the number of candidates needed. Also use this code if eligibility is based on a political party is required to present candidates in a certain number of districts etc. 

Number of members 

Code “Number of members” if eligibility is established by the number of members of the party. Note the number of members needed. 

Participation in election 

Code “Participation in election” if political parties are only eligible to receive public funding if they have participated in the latest preceding election, or will participate in the closest forthcoming election.  

Registration as a political party 

Code “Registration as a political party” if political parties are only eligible to receive public funding if they are registered as a political party. 

Other 

Code “Other” if another criterion is used. Give an external comment to specify. 

Not applicable 

Code “Not applicable” if you code “No public funding available” on Q28.  

No data 

Code “No data” if you code “No data” on Q28. 

Code “No data” if you cannot find information, or if it is stated that the eligibility criteria is decided by a particular institution. 

30. What is the allocation calculation for political parties to receive public funding?  

 

(multiple answers allowed) 

 

Equal 

This question refers to how the public funding is distributed between those that have a right to receive it. 

Public funding can be provided equally to all eligible political parties; totally in proportion to something like seats or votes won; or (most commonly) a combination of the two. There are a lot of different ways that allocation can be done. If you find information about the allocation criteria, give information as below. 

If more than one criterion is used, code all the applicable options. 

Code “Equal” if public funding is provided equally to all. 

 

If there are details about how the public funding should be divided between political parties, provide a brief explanation in an external comment.  If some of the funds are provided equally and some proportionally, also note the percentage of the funds that  are allocated proportionally. 

In case the answer “Yes, both regularly and in relation to campaigns” was given in Q28 and the allocation criteria is different for the two types of direct public funding, please state clearly what the regulations are for campaign support and for regular assistance separately in an external comment. 

Proportional to votes received 

Code “Proportional to votes received” if public funding is allocated proportionally to votes received (in either preceding or forthcoming election). 

Flat rate by votes received 

Code “Flat rate by votes received” if public funding is allocated based on a flat rate by votes received (in either preceding or forthcoming election). 

Proportional to seats received 

Code “Proportional to seats received” if public funding is allocated proportionally to the share or number of seat that each political party has nominated/presented. 

Proportional to candidates fielded 

Code “Proportional to candidates fielded” if public funding is allocated proportionally to the number of candidates that each political party has nominated/presented. 

Share of expenses reimbursed 

Code “Share of expenses reimbursed” if public funding is used to reimburse share of expenses incurred by political parties on the basis of a certain criteria 

Number of members 

Code “Number of members” if public funding is allocated based on the number of members of a party. 

 

Other 

Code “Other” if something else is used as the basis for allocation. Give details in external comment.  

Not applicable 

Code “Not applicable”, if you code “No public funding available” on Q28. 

No data 

Code “No data” in following cases: 

  • If you code “No data” on Q28. 

  • If you cannot find any details. 

31. What are the provisions on ´ear marking´ direct public funding provided to political parties (how it should be used)?  

 

(multiple answers allowed) 

 

Campaign spending 

If it is noted that direct public funding provided to political parties must only be used for certain purposes, code which. Code all options that apply, provide details in an external comment. 

Code “Campaign Spending” if it is stated that the money must be used for election campaign purposes.  

In case the answer “Both” was given in Q30 and the allocation criteria is different for the two types of direct public funding, please state clearly what the regulations are for campaign support and for regular assistance separately in an external comment. 

Ongoing party activities 

Code “Ongoing party” if it is noted that the money must be used for ongoing party activities such as administration, public awareness campaigns, policy platform development, voter interaction or membership drives. 

Intra-party institution 

Code “Intra-party institution” if funds are given directly to or explicitly intended for the use of particular institutions within political parties, such as Youth or Women’s Wings or research or policy institutions within parties. Provide additional information in an external comment. 

Research and policy initiatives 

Code “Research and policy initiatives” if funds are specifically earmarked towards activities related to policy platform development (therefore, excluding the other activities mentioned for “Ongoing party activities”). 

Other 

Code “Other” if some other form of earmarking is noted, or if it is noted that public funds must not be used for a certain purpose.  Give details in an external comment. 

No 

Code “No” if there are no provisions for what direct public funding must be used. 

Not applicable 

Code “Not applicable”, if you code “No public funding available” on Q28. 

No data 

Code “No data” in following cases: 

  • if you code “No data” on Q28. 

  • If you cannot find information. 

32. Are there provisions for free or subsidized access to media for political parties? 

 

Yes 

Code “Yes” if political parties are entitled to free or subsidised access to public or private TV, radio, newspaper or other media, regardless of whether this is in relation to election campaigns or not. Note details in an external comment. A provision that media outlets should treat political parties without bias would not be relevant for this question. 

Add details as external comments, for example if media access is extended not only to public but also to private media. 

Information about this issue is sometimes not listed together with general political party or campaign finance provisions; sometimes it is regulated in an electoral law (or similar) in paragraphs that relate to the role of media in elections. 

No 

Code “No” if you find information about political party finance and media in elections but there is no information of such benefits. 

Not applicable 

Code “Not applicable” if only candidates/individuals are allowed to participate in politics (such as the case of Tuvalu).   

No data 

Code “No data” if you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue. 

33. What criteria determine allocation for free or subsidized access to media for political parties?  

 

(multiple answers allowed) 

Equal 

Code “Equal” if the regulation states that all political parties receive the same time/access to free or subsidized media. Do the same if it is simply stated that time/access is allocated “equally”. 

Number of candidates 

Code “Number of candidates” if you find that time/access is allocated by the number of candidates presented by the party (in the preceding or forthcoming election). 

Share of seats 

 Code “Share of seats” if it is stated that the allocation is based on the number of seats or the “representation” of each party. 

Votes 

Code “Votes” if it is stated that the time/access is allocated by the number of votes received (in the preceding or forthcoming election). 

Number of members 

 

Code “Number of members” if you find that time/access is allocated by the number of members of the party. 

Other (free text) 

Code “Other” if another criterion is used. Give details in an external comment.  

Not applicable 

Code “Not applicable”, if you code “No” on Q32.  

No data 

Code “No data” in following cases: 

  • If you code “No data” on Q32. 

  • If you cannot find information. 

34. Are there provisions for free or subsidized access to media for candidates? 

Yes 

Code “Yes” if candidates are entitled to free or subsidized access to public or private TV, radio, newspaper or other media, regardless of whether this is in relation to election campaigns or not. Note details in an external comment. A provision that media outlets should treat candidates without bias would not be relevant for this question.  

Add details as external comments, for example if media access is extended not only to public but also to private media). 

Information about this issue is sometimes not listed together with general political party or campaign finance provisions; sometimes it is regulated in an electoral law (or similar) in paragraphs that relate to the role of media in elections. 

No 

Code “No” if you find information about political party finance and media in elections but there is no information of such benefits.  

Not applicable 

 

Code “Not applicable” if provisions for free or subsidized access to media is only mentioning subsidies for political parties.  

No data 

Code “No data” if you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue. 

35. Are there provisions for any other form of indirect public funding?  

 

Yes 

Code “Yes” if you find information of any form of support, assistance or benefit from the state to either or both of political parties or of candidates not covered by the preceding questions. 

This could for example be: 

  • Political parties/candidates being exempt from tax or custom duties, or receiving other tax benefits (this could include statements that political parties or candidates do not have to pay income tax or VAT) 

  • Donors to political parties/candidates receiving tax benefits from donations (for example that donors can deduct donations to parties or candidates from their taxes). 

  • Provision of free or subsidized transport, postage, office space, areas for events, poster.  

If you code “Yes”, you must give details in an external comment.  

No

Code “No” if you find regulations about state assistance to political parties or candidates but there is nothing not covered by preceding questions. 

No data 

Code “No data” if you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about other forms of donations

36. Is the provision of direct public funding to political parties tied to gender equality among candidates?  

 

Yes 

Code “Yes” if there are provisions that political parties will receive additional public funding if they meet criteria relating to gender equality among their candidates, or if political parties risk losing all or some of their public funding if they do not reach such criteria. Explain the criteria briefly, noting both the sanction/reward and the definition of gender equality to be used.  

Examples include reduced funding if gender inequality among candidates/ extra funding added for parties with gender equality among candidates/earmarking of funds for gender equality activities. A search in each law for “women”, “gender” and “sex” may be useful. 

No 

Code “No” if you find no information in legislation or other sources that a connection between direct public funding and the gender equality is in use. 

Not applicable 

Code “Not applicable”, if you code “No” on Q28.  

No data 

Code “No data” in following cases: 

  • If you code “No data” on Q28. 

  • If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue. 

37. Are there provisions for other financial advantages to encourage gender equality in political parties?  

 

(multiple answers allowed) 

 

Yes, funding to women’s wings 

 

This question relates to regulations that are explicitly aimed at increasing gender equality in the activities or organisation of political parties.  

Code “Yes, funding to women´s wings” If there is provision that public funding (direct or indirect) is to be given especially to the Women’s Wing (or similar) of a political party. 

Give additional information in an external comment (you must do so if you have coded “other”). 

A search in each law for the terms “women”, “gender” and “sex” may be useful. 

If more than one alternative applies, code all of them. 

Yes, increased media access 

Code “Yes, increased media access” if it is stated that women candidates or that political parties that fulfil certain criteria regarding gender equality benefit from increased access to media. 

Yes, tax benefits 

 

Code “Yes, tax benefits” if it is stated that women candidates or that political parties that fulfil certain criteria regarding gender equality benefit from tax benefits, or that donors to women candidates or political parties that fulfil certain criteria regarding gender equality receive tax benefits. 

Yes, reduced nomination fee 

 

Code “Yes, reduced nomination fee” if it is stated that women candidates or that political parties that fulfil certain criteria regarding gender equality benefit from reduced candidate nomination fees. 

Yes, funds earmarked for gender activities 

Code “Funds earmarked for gender activities” if it is stated that public funding (direct or indirect) is to be given especially to gender activities, such as gender sensitization training.  

Other 

Code “Other” if it is stated that women candidates or that political parties that fulfil certain criteria regarding gender equality benefit from other forms of regulation. Give additional information in an external comment.  

No 

Code “No” if you find no information in legislation or other sources that financial benefits to increase gender equality is in use. 

No data 

Code “No data” if you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue. 

38. Is there a ban on vote buying?  

 

 

Yes 

Code “Yes” if there is a ban on bribing or influencing/inducing voters to vote in a certain manner. 

Note that this information is not normally found among regular political party or campaign finance provisions. Often bans of this type are found in a list of election offences or similar, which tends to be placed towards the end of election laws. 

No 

Code “No” in following cases: 

  • If no such provisions exist.  

  • If there is a ban on political parties or candidates to incur certain expenses such as charitable spending in relation to elections, but there is no necessary connection made between such spending and exerting influence on how people vote. 

No data 

 

Code “No data” if you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about other vote buying (or election offences). 

39. Are there limits on the amount a political party can spend?  

 

Yes 

Code “Yes” if there are any regulations limiting the amounts that political parties can spend, either for a certain time period or in relation to an election. Give details in an external comment. 

No 

Code “No” if you find information about political party and campaign finance but there is no information of such limits, or if there seem to be no regulations of political party finance at all. 

Not applicable 

Code “Not applicable” if only candidates/individuals are allowed to participate in politics (such as the case of Tuvalu). 

No data 

Code “No data” if you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about such limits. 

40. If there are limits on the amount a political party can spend, what is the limit?  

 

Other (free text, limit in local currency) 

Code “Not applicable” if you code “Not applicable” on Q39. 

Give information about the spending limit for political parties (in the currency used in the regulation, noting which one that is) and add if the limit is for a certain time period, for an election and also if it is per constituency or per voter etc. If a certain formula is used to calculate the spending limit, include this in an external comment. 

Not applicable 

Code “Not applicable”, if you code “No” on Q39. 

No data 

 

Code “No data” in following cases: 

  • If you find no information about the limit (such as if it is stated that the limit is to be set by an institution). Give details in an external comment. 

  • If you code “No data” on Q39. 

41. Are there limits on the amount a candidate can spend?  

 

Yes 

Code “Yes” in following cases: 

  • If there are any regulations limiting the amounts that an election candidate can spend, either for a certain time period or in relation to an election.  

  • If such limits only apply to certain candidates (give details in an external comment). 

No 

 

Code “No” if you find information about candidate finance but there is no information of such limits, or if there seem to be no regulations of candidate finance at all. 

Not applicable 

 

Code “Not applicable” if candidates are not allowed to spend on their campaigns 

No data 

 

Code “No data” if you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about such limits. 

42. If there are limits on the amount a candidate can spend what is the limit? 

 

Other (free text, limit in local currency) 

 

Give information about the spending limit for candidates (in the currency used in the regulation, noting which one that is) and add if the limit is for a certain time period, for an election and also if it is per constituency or per voter etc. If a certain formula is used to calculate the spending limit, include this in an external comment. 

Not applicable

Code “Not applicable” if you code “No” on Q41. 

No data 

Code “No data” in following cases: 

  • If you code “No data” on Q41. 

  • I you find no information about the limit (such as if it is stated that the limit is to be set by an institution). Give details in an external comment. 

43. Are there limits on the amount that third parties can spend on election campaign activities?  

 

Yes, third parties banned from campaign spending 

By “third party” is here meant any person or entity other than a political party or candidate, or a person acting on behalf of a party or candidate in an official capacity (such as a party official or a candidate representative) which engages in election campaigning or in spending resources in relation to an election campaign in favour of or against a political party or contestant. 

Code “Yes, third parties banned from campaign spending” if there is a provision that third parties are banned from engaging in any campaign activities. 

Yes, spending limit exists for third parties 

Code “Yes, spending limit exists for third parties” if there is a limited specifically on how much third parties can spend, and give details about the limit in an external comment. 

Yes, spending limit for party/candidate includes spending by other on their behalf 

Code “Yes, spending limit for party/candidate includes spending by other on their behalf” if it is regulated that a campaign spending limit for political parties and/or candidates also applies to third parties campaigning on their behalf. 

No 

Code “No” if there are no limitations on the amount that third parties can spend on election campaign activities.  

No data 

 

Code “No data” if you cannot find information.

44. Are there limits on traditional media advertising spending in relation to election campaigns? 

 

(multiple answers are allowed)  

 

Yes, for political parties 

By “traditional media” is meant print and broadcast media. 

Code “Yes, for political parties” in following cases: 

  • If there are regulations that political parties cannot spend more than a certain amount, or more than a certain percentage of their total campaign spending, on traditional media advertising.  

  • If there are regulations that political parties cannot purchase more than a certain number of minutes per day or other limitations on the amount of traditional media advertising that can be purchased.  

  • If there is a regulation that political parties cannot spend more than a certain share of their advertising spending on any one traditional media outlet. 

Yes, for candidates 

Code “Yes, for candidates” in following cases: 

  • If there are regulations that candidates cannot spend more than a certain amount, or more than a certain percentage of their total campaign spending, on traditional media advertising. 

  • If there are regulations that candidates cannot purchase more than a certain number of minutes per day or other limitations on the amount of traditional media advertising that can be purchased.  

  • If there is a regulation that political parties cannot spend more than a certain share of their advertising spending on any one traditional media outlet. 

Yes, for third parties 

Code “Yes, for third parties” if there are limitations on the amounts spent by third-parties on traditional media in election campaigns. 

No 

Code “No” if there are no limitations on media advertising by parties/candidates. 

No data 

Code “No data” if you cannot find information. 

45. Are there limits on online media advertising spending in relation to election campaigns?  

 

(multiple answers are allowed) 

Yes, for political parties 

 

 

  • By “online media” is meant internet/online and social media. 

  • Code “Yes, for political parties” in following cases: 

  • If there are regulations that parties cannot spend more than a certain amount, or more than a certain percentage of their total campaign spending, on online media advertising. 

  • If there are regulations that parties cannot purchase more than a certain number of minutes per day or other limitations on the amount of online media advertising that can be purchased.  

  • If there is a regulation that candidates cannot spend more than a certain share of their advertising spending on any one online media outlet. 

Yes, for candidates 

 

  • Code “Yes, for candidates” if there are regulations that candidates cannot spend more than a certain amount, or more than a certain percentage of their total campaign spending, on online media advertising. 

  • If there are regulations that candidates cannot purchase more than a certain number of minutes per day or other limitations on the amount of online media advertising that can be purchased.  

  • If there is a regulation that candidates cannot spend more than a certain share of their advertising spending on any one online media outlet. 

Yes, for third parties 

Code “Yes, for third parties” if there are limitations on the amounts spent by third-parties on online media in election campaigns. 

No 

Code “No” if there are no limitations on media advertising by parties/candidates/third-parties, or if the legislation regarding media advertising does not mention anything on online media advertising. 

No data 

Code “No data” if you cannot find information. 

46. Do any other restrictions on online media advertisement (beyond limits) exist?  

 

Yes 

 

By “online media” is meant internet/online and social media. 

Code “Yes” if there are any restrictions on the use of online media other than that noted in the preceding question for political parties or candidates. This can include restrictions on who advertising is made with (for example certain media companies or foreign powers), or medium for placement of advertising (for example Facebook). 

No 

Code “No” if there are no other restrictions on online media advertisement beyond spending limits. 

No data 

Code “No data” if you cannot find information. 

47. Do political parties have to report regularly on their finances? 

Yes 

Note that this question does not relate to any financial reports, statements or disclosure that political parties need to make in relation to election campaigns (such as submitting certain information before or after an election date). 

Code “Yes” if there any requirements that political parties or any institution within political parties must provide certain financial information, submits reports or makes financial statements regularly (often annually). Add any details in an external comment. 

No 

Code “No” if political party or political finance legislation makes no mention of political parties having to submit any financial records, reports or statements, or if a written source or expert witness states that there are no such requirements. 

Not applicable 

 

Code “Not applicable” if only candidates/individuals are allowed to participate in politics (such as the case of Tuvalu). 

No data 

Code “No data” if you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue. 

48. Do political parties have to report on their election campaign finances?  

Yes 

Note that this question does not relate to any financial reports, statements or disclosure that political parties need to make regularly (such as annually), only such made in relation to election campaigns (such as submitting certain information before or after an election date). 

Code “Yes” if there are any requirements that political parties or any institution within political parties must provide certain financial information, submit reports or make financial statements in relation to an election campaign. Add any details in an external comment. 

No 

Code “No” if political party, political finance or electoral legislation makes no mention of political parties having to submit any financial records, reports or statements, or if a written source or expert witness states that there are no such requirements.  

Not applicable 

Code “Not applicable” if only candidates/individuals are allowed to participate in politics (such as the case of Tuvalu). 

No data

Code “No data” if you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue. 

49. Do candidates have to report on their election campaign finances?  

Yes 

 

Code “Yes” if there are any requirements that candidates must submit certain financial information, submits reports or makes financial statements in relation to an election campaign.

No 

Code “No” if, political finance or electoral legislation makes no mention of candidates having to submit any financial records, reports or statements, or if a written source or expert witness states that there are no such requirements. 

Not applicable 

Code “Not applicable” if only political parties are allowed to receive donation. 

No data 

Code “No data” if you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue. 

50. Do third parties have to report on election campaign finances? 

 

 

Third parties banned from participating in campaigns 

For a definition of “third party”, see Q43.  

Code “Third parties banned from participating in campaigns”, if you coded “Third parties banned from participating in campaigns” in Q43. 

Yes 

Code “Yes” if there are provisions that third parties are required to submit financial reports before, during or after electoral campaigns. 

Sometimes 

Code “Sometimes” if only some third parties have to do so, for example if they have a particular relationship to a political party or candidate, if they engage in certain types of campaign activities or if they spend above a certain amount.  

No 

Code “No” if there is no such ban, and there is no explicit information on third parties required to submit financial reports. 

No data 

Code “No data” if you cannot find information. 

51. Is information in reports from political parties and/or candidates to be made public?  

Yes 

Code “Yes” in following cases: 

  • If it is stated that all of the submitted information submitted is made public, including being printed in a gazette, put on a website or made available at an office. 

  • If it is stated that information in reports should be made public, and no limitations are noted.  

  • If political parties are required to make information public themselves in whatever format. 

Note in an external comment if there is a timeline when reports should be published, and if the publication format is specified (such as electronic publication). 

Sometimes 

Code “Sometimes” if there is any information in reports that does not need to be made public. Note any limitations in an external comment.  

No 

 

Code “No” in following cases: 

  • If there are no provision that submitted financial reports is made public in political party, political finance or electoral laws (as applicable), or if a written source or expert witness states that there are no such requirements.  

  • If it explicitly stated that the received information will be confidential (or similar wording).  

Not applicable 

Code “Not applicable”, if you code “No” on both Q48 and Q49. 

No data 

Code “No data” in following cases: 

  • If you code “No data” on both Q48 and Q49. 

  • If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue.

52.Must reports from political parties and/or candidates reveal the identity of donors?  

 

Yes 

Code “Yes” if there is a requirement for political parties or candidates to report on the identity of the persons or entities that have provided donations or contributions. This could include a general provision to reveal the identity of donors or a more specific requirement to put names, address etc. of contributors in financial reports being made.  

Sometimes 

Code “Sometimes” in following cases: 

  • If only donations above a certain value have been given or if there are other limitations to when a donor’s identity must be revealed and note details in an external comment.  

  • If such requirements exist for candidates but not for political parties or vice versa and explain further in the comment box. 

No 

Code “No” if it is explicitly stated that political parties do not have to reveal the identity of donors, or if there are no provisions on this issue at all. 

Not applicable 

Code “Not applicable”, if you code “No” on all of Q47, 48 and 49. 

No data 

Code “No data” in following cases: 

  • If you code “No data” on all of Q47, 48 and 49.  

  • If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about the identity of donors.

53. Must reports from political parties and/or candidates include information on itemized income?  

  

Yes 

Code “Yes” if regulations state that political parties and/or candidates in their financial reports must specify information about each item of income, or that they must submit detailed information about their income.  

Provide detail in external comment if only political parties or candidates are required to include information on itemized income in their financial reports. 

No 

Code “No” if it is not stated that parties must report their income, or if it is only stated that they should report on their income, with no mention about detailed or itemized reporting or identifying donors. 

Not applicable 

 

Code “Not applicable”, if you code “No” on all of Q49, Q50 and Q51.  

No data 

Code “No data” in following cases:  

  • If you code “No data” on all of Q49, Q50 and Q51. 

  • If you cannot find information. 

54. Must reports from political parties and/or candidates include information on itemized spending?  

 

Yes 

Code “Yes” if regulations state that political parties and/or candidates in their financial reports must specify information about each item of spending, or that they must submit detailed information about their spending.  

Provide detail in external comment if only political parties or candidates are required to include information on itemized spending in their financial reports. 

No 

Code “No” if it is not stated that parties must report their spending, or if it is only stated that they should report on their spending, with no mention about detailed or itemized reporting. 

Not applicable 

Code “Not applicable” if you code “No” on all of Q49, Q50 and Q51.  

No data 

Code “No data” if you cannot find information. 

55. Which institution(s) receives financial reports from political parties and/or candidates? 

 

(multiple answers allowed) 

 

EMB 

Note which type of institution(s) that has a mandate to receive financial statements from political parties and or candidates, either regularly or in relation to elections.  

Code “EMB” if it is the electoral commission or similar institution. 

If more than one institution is involved, code all that apply. 

Ministry 

Code “Ministry” if it is a Ministry or a person or institution within a Ministry. 

Anti-corruption agency 

Code “Anti-corruption agency” if it an agency with a mandate to work on issues around corruption. 

Special agency for political finance 

Code “Special agency for political finance” if it an agency that has been set up especially to work on issues related to political finance. 

Court 

Code “Court” if is a court or a person or institution within a court. 

Auditing agency 

Code “Auditing agency” if it is an institution such as a national auditing bureau. 

Parliamentary unit 

Code “Parliamentary unit” if it is parliament or an institution within parliament. 

Other 

Code “Other” if it is some other form of institution. Give details in an external comment. 

No institution specified 

Code “No institution specified” if the law does not specify that any institution receives financial reports from political parties and/or candidates.  

Not applicable 

Code “Not applicable” in following cases: 

  • If you code “No” on all of Q48, 49 and 50. 

  • If neither political parties nor candidates need to submit any financial reports. 

No data 

 

Code “No data” in following cases: 

  • If you code “No data” on all of Q48, 49 and 50.  

  • Code “No data” if you cannot find information. 

56. Which institution is responsible for examining financial reports and/or investigating violations?  

 

(multiple answers allowed) 

 

EMB 

 

Note which type of institution(s) the law specifies has a mandate or obligation to review financial statements from political parties and or candidates, either regularly or in relation to elections. This can include provisions that the institution should “verify” or “control the accuracy” of the reports, or that this body should order external audits of received reports. It is likely that the answer to this question will be the same as for Q58, but only if it is clearly specified that this institution should not only receive but also review the reports.  

Note which type of institution that has a mandate to investigate breaches of financial rules by political parties, candidates or other actors, either regularly or in relation to elections. Code the responsible institution if legislation states that it should investigate potential violations of political finance regulations, relating to political party or campaign finance.  

Code “EMB” if it is the electoral commission or similar institution. 

If more than one institution is involved, code all that apply. Provide details in an external comment (for example if one type of institution examines reports and another investigates breaches) and give the name of all institutions. 

Ministry 

Code “Ministry” if it is a Ministry or a person or institution within a Ministry. 

Anti-corruption agency 

Code “Anti-corruption agency” if it an agency with a mandate to work on issues around corruption. 

Special agency for political finance 

Code “Special agency for political finance” if it an agency that has been set up especially to work on issues related to political fina

Court 

Code “Court if is a court or a person or institution within a court. 

Auditing agency 

Code “Auditing agency” if it is an institution such as a national auditing bureau.  

Parliamentary unit 

Code “Parliamentary unit” if it is parliament or an institution within parliament.  

Other 

Code “Other” if it is some other form of institution. Give details in an external comment.  

No institution specified 

Code “No institution specified” if the law does not specify that any institution (including the one in charge of receiving the reports) should review them.  

No data 

Code “No data” if you cannot find information. 

57. What power is granted to the institution(s) responsible for examining reports and/or investigating violations?  

 

(multiple answers allowed) 

 

Refer for investigation 

Code for the powers that the institution(s) identified in the preceding question has in examining financial reports and/or investigating breaches of political finance regulations. 

Code “Refer for investigation” if the institution(s) has the right/obligation to refer cases of suspected violations to another institution (such as the police or an anti-corruption institution). 

If the institution(s) has more than one power, code all that apply.  

Carry out investigation 

Code “Carry out investigation” if the institution(s) has the right/obligation to investigate suspected violations. 

Request additional information from potential violator 

Code “Request additional information from potential violator” if the institution(s) has the right/obligation to request information from potential violators in cases of suspected violations. 

Request additional information from others 

Code “Request additional information from others” if the institution(s) has the right/obligation to request information also from others than potential violators in cases of suspected violations. 

Impose sanctions 

Code “Impost sanctions” if the institution(s) has the right/obligation to impose sanctions in cases of violations. 

Other 

Code “Other” if the institution(s) have any other power. Add information regarding what type of power in an external comment. 

Not applicable 

Code “Not applicable”, if you code “No institution specified” for Q56.  

No data 

Code “No data” in following cases: 

  • If you code “No data” for Q56.  

  • If you cannot find information. 

58. What sanctions are provided for political finance infractions?  

 

(multiple answers allowed) 

 

Fines 

Note all types of sanctions that may be applied in case of offences related to political party or campaign finance. Multiple alternatives can be given. 

Code “Fines” if a political party, candidate or other actor (such as party officials, donors or party/candidate auditors) may be given a fine or other financial penalty. 

Prison 

Code “Prison” If a candidate or other actor (such as party officials, donors or party/candidate auditors) may be given a prison sentence. 

Forfeiture 

Code “Forfeiture” if a political party or candidate has to return amounts received against the rules or forward the amount (or a multiple of the amount) to someone else, such as the EMB. 

Suspension of public funding 

Code “Suspension of public funding” if there are provisions that direct public funding may be withheld operations until the party has fulfilled certain actions relating to an offence relating to political finance.  

Loss of public funding 

Code “Loss of public funding” if there are offences or infractions relating to political party finance which can lead to direct public funding being reduced, stopped or demanded in return. 

Suspension of political party 

Code “Suspension of political party” if a political party may be required to cease all or some of its operations until the party has fulfilled certain actions relating to an offence relating to political finance. 

Deregistration of party 

Code “Deregistration of party” if a political party may be deregistered for offences relating to political finance. 

Loss of political rights 

 

Code “Loss of political rights” if a party or candidate may lose its/his/her political rights (for e.g. right to vote for offences relating to political finance.  

Loss of elected office 

 

Code “Loss of elected office” if a party or candidate may lose elected office for offences relating to political finance.  

Loss of nomination of candidate 

Code “Loss of nomination of candidate” if a candidate may lose her/his nomination to stand for election for offences relating to political finance. 

Other 

Code “Other” if there are other types of sanctions apart from those noted above. If so, you must give details in an external comment. 

None 

Code “None” if there are no provisions for sanctions regarding breaches of political finance regulations. 

Not applicable 

Code “Not applicable” if there are no regulations whatsoever relating to political finance (and so there cannot be any sanctions). 

No data 

Code “No data” if you cannot find the information 

 

Disclaimer: Maps presented do not imply on the part of the Institute any judgement on the legal status of any territory or the endorsement of such boundaries, nor does the placement or size of any country or territory reflect the political view of International IDEA. Maps are used in order to add visual clarity to data.