Philippines

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Question Value
Legal provisions for mandatory referendums at national level
  • Yes
Legal provisions for optional referendums at national level
  • Yes
Legal provisions for citizens' initiatives at national level
  • Yes
Legal provisions for agenda initiatives at national level
  • Yes
Legal provisions for recall at national level
  • No
Legal provisions for direct democracy at the regional level
  • Optional referendum
  • Citizens' initiative
  • Agenda initiative
Legal provisions for direct democracy at the local level
  • Optional referendum
  • Citizens' initiative
  • Agenda initiative
Legal basis for direct democracy at the national level
  • Constitutional
  • Specific laws/legislation
Legal basis for administrative requirements at the national level
  • Specific laws/legislation
Who administers direct democracy mechanisms at the national level?
  • Independent electoral commission
First referendum/initiative held
  • 1935
Has there been a national referendum since 1980?
  • Yes

Question Value
Issues in relation to which referendums are mandatory at the national level
  • Constitutional amendments
  • Presence of foreign military bases, troops, or facilities
Issues in relation to which referendums are optional at the national level
  • Constitutional amendments
  • Any issue of national importance, except those excluded
Issues excluded from being the subject of referendums at the national level
  • Petition embracing more than one subject; Statutes involving emergency measures
Issues of sub-national referendums regulated at the national level
  • No data
Who can initiate an optional referendum at the national level?
  • Legislative majority
  • Registered electors
Who drafts the referendum question?
  • Not specified by legislation
Who decides on the final form of the ballot text?
  • Not specified by legislation
Quorum requirements for a referendum to be valid
  • Not specified by legislation
Requirements for a referendum to pass
  • Mandatory referendum - simple majority
  • Optional referendum - simple majority
Are referendum results binding?
  • Mandatory referendum - always
  • Optional referendum - always

Question Value
Issues that can be proposed by citizens using the initiative process at the national level
  • Citizens' initiatives - constitutional amendments
  • Citizens' initiatives - legislative proposals
  • Agenda initiatives - constitutional amendments
  • Agenda initiatives - legislative proposals
Issues excluded from being the subject of an initiative at the national level
  • No more than one subject shall be submitted to the electorate; Statutes involving emergency measures
Who may propose the registration of an initiative?
  • Citizens' initiative - a number of individuals
  • Agenda initiative - a number of individuals
Materials to accompany an application for registration
  • General explanation of the purpose
  • Full proposed text
Who determines the title of an initiative?
  • Not specified by legislation
What disqualifies a proposed title of an initiative?
  • Not specified by legislation
Who is responsible for checking the legality of initiatives?
  • Independent electoral commission
At which stage legality check is conducted?
  • After its submission but before the registration of an initiative
Who decides the final ballot text when the initiative is put to a vote?
  • Not specified by legislation
When does voting take place once an initiative is qualified for ballot?
  • Within a certain time limit

Question Value
Which individuals/positions may be subject to the recall?
    What are the grounds for recall?
      What restrictions are there in relation to the time period in which an individual or position can be recalled?
        When is the recall put to the vote?
          When does the election to replace an individual who has been recalled take place?
            Can an individual who is the subject of a recall stand on the ballot for his/her own replacement?

              Question Value
              How many signatures are required to start the formal decision making stage of a direct democracy mechanism?
              • Referendum - proportion of the electorate
              • Citizens' Initiative - proportion of the electorate
              • Agenda Initiative - proportion of the electorate
              What is the deadline for collecting required number of signatures?
              • The Commission on Election shall set a special registration day at least three (3) weeks before a scheduled initiative or referendum
              Restrictions in relation to the individuals who can sign the proposal
              • Referendum - signatories must be registered electors in a specified electoral district
              • Citizens' Initiative - signatories must be registered electors in a specified electoral district
              • Agenda Initiative - signatories must be registered electors in a specified electoral district
              Where can proposals be signed?
              • Anywhere
              What information must signatories provide when signing the proposal?
              • Identity or voting card number
              Restrictions in relation to signature collection
              • Requirement for signature collectors to be registered electors
              What forms of checks are undertaken to verify signatures?
              • All signatures are checked
              Who checks the signatures?
              • Agency responsible for the administration of direct democracy mechanisms